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VU
White-naped Crane Antigone vipio

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 125,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 125,000 medium
Number of locations 10-20 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-3900 medium Estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 3000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -
Population justification: The total population is estimated at 5,500-6,500 individuals, based on estimates of 1,000-1,500 individuals wintering in China , and a 2009 count of 1,920 in Korea (Lee Ki-sup in litt. 2012) and a maximum count of 3,142 in 2009 at Izumi, Japan (S. Chan in litt. 2012).  Double counting is possible between the Korean sites and Izumi due to movement of birds during the wintering period.
Trend justification: Although accurate data on population trends are lacking, numbers are thought likely to be in rapid decline owing to habitat loss in both the breeding and wintering grounds, as well as other confounding factors such as hunting, disturbance, nest predation and pollution.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
North Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
South Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayan Obo Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huanzidong site factsheet
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Laotieshan site factsheet
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nuomin-Bila He-Dayangshu site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Qagan Nur site factsheet
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang site factsheet
China (mainland) Sihong Wetland of Hongze Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulgai site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xilin Gol Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve site factsheet
Japan Izumi, Takaono site factsheet
Mongolia Buir Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ganga Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Khukh Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Mongol Daguur site factsheet
Mongolia Nomrog site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Shaazan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tsengeleg Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
North Korea Amrok River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve) site factsheet
North Korea Kumya Bay site factsheet
North Korea Lake Kwangpo site factsheet
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo site factsheet
North Korea Onchon field site factsheet
North Korea Ongjin Bay site factsheet
North Korea Orangchon River estuary site factsheet
North Korea Panmun field site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
South Korea Cheolwon basin site factsheet
South Korea Daeseongdong and Panmunjeom marshes site factsheet
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong site factsheet
South Korea Han-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Junam reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Upo swamp site factsheet
South Korea Yeonchon site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Antigone vipio. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Gruidae (Cranes)
Species name author Pallas, 1811
Population size 3300-3900 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 125,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species