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Ludwig's Bustard Neotis ludwigii
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A4cd 
Vulnerable A4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Endangered
2010 Endangered
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 342,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 1994
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -
Population justification: The global population has been estimated at 56,000-81,000 individuals. However, given the estimated rates of power line collisions since this estimate, the true population size is likely to be much lower; a full population census is underway to accurately establish current numbers (J. Shaw in litt. 2012).
Trend justification: Based on collision rates with power lines from two areas, the best-case scenario indicates a decline of 51% over three generations in South Africa, which holds 50-75% of the global population (Jenkins et al. 2011). Given that power lines collisions also occur in Nambia (A. Scott and M. Scott in litt. 2010), and effective mitigation measures are yet to be implemented, a decline of 50-79% is estimated over the 31 year period from 1994-2025 (three generations).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Angola Native Extant       Yes
Botswana Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Lesotho Native Extant       Yes
Namibia Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Angola Iona National Park site factsheet
Namibia Brandberg mountain site factsheet
Namibia Etosha National Park site factsheet
Namibia Hobatere site factsheet
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park site factsheet
Namibia Sperrgebiet site factsheet
South Africa Anysberg Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Augrabies Falls National Park site factsheet
South Africa Bitterputs Conservation Area site factsheet
South Africa Camdeboo National Park site factsheet
South Africa Cedarberg - Koue Bokkeveld complex site factsheet
South Africa Haramoep and Black Mountain Mine site factsheet
South Africa Kalahari-Gemsbok National Park site factsheet
South Africa Kamfers Dam site factsheet
South Africa Karoo National Park site factsheet
South Africa Mattheus-Gat Conservation Area site factsheet
South Africa Olifants river estuary site factsheet
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands site factsheet
South Africa Platberg-Karoo Conservancy site factsheet
South Africa Swartberg mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Neotis ludwigii. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Otididae (Bustards)
Species name author (Rüppell, 1837)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 342,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change