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VU
Large Green-pigeon Treron capellei

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it is restricted to low-lying forest in a region in which this habitat-type is being cleared and degraded at such a rate that rapid and continuing population declines are suspected.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
36 cm. Large, arboreal pigeon. Male is generally greyish-green, paler below, with dark golden patch on chest, blackish-grey wings, fringed yellow. Undertail-coverts dark chestnut. Yellow legs. Female has yellow chest patch. Similar spp. Female Thick-billed Green-pigeon T. curvirostra is smaller, lacks coloured patch on chest, undertail-coverts green-and-white, legs reddish. Voice Deep, rich growling notes and kak-kak or kwok-kwok.

Distribution and population
Treron capellei occurs from peninsular Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia to Borneo (including Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia, and Kalimantan, Indonesia), and the Indonesian island of Sumatra (BirdLife International 2001). It was once widely distributed and at least locally very common, but serious declines have taken place, such that it is now highly local and scarce. There are no recent records from Myanmar or Java. In the early twentieth century, flocks of 200–300 birds were reported as normal in Peninsular Malaysia (BirdLife International 2001). Regular flocks of 20-30 birds in Taman Negara, and reports that it remains locally common in Belum Temenggor, suggest that sizable populations may still persist within large forest blocks in Malaysia (Yeap Chin Aik in litt. 2007, Iqbal et al. in press). The species was absent from several recent surveys in Kalimantan (eg. Meier 2005, Brickle et al. 2010, Sheldon et al. 2010), or recorded in small number (Slik and Balen 2006, Wielstra and Pieterse 2009, Wielstra et al. 2011, Woxvold and Noske 2011). However, 48 birds were reported roosting on the edge of secondary forest in East Kalimantan in November 2011 and up to 25 were seen at a logging concession in Melawi district, west Kalimantan in March 2011 (Iqbal et al. in press). At least 50 birds were observed inside the Danum Valley conservation area, Sabah in May 2009 (Iqbal et al. in press). Little is known about its status on Sumatra, however, a flock of more than 40 birds was observed at Way Kambas National Park in May 2006 (Iqbal et al. in press).


Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of illegal but corruptly promoted logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998).

Ecology
It inhabits primary and logged evergreen rainforest, almost exclusively in the lowlands, rarely ascending foothills to 1,500 m. Small flocks visit fruiting trees (usually figs Ficus spp.) and are generally encountered high in the canopy. It is largely sedentary, although populations may fluctuate in response to fruiting cycles, and nocturnal movements have been noted.

Threats
Massive declines in the population of this species are presumably occurring in the face of habitat loss. Huge areas of lowland forest were removed from its range during the 20th century, chiefly through logging, conversion to agriculture and fire. For example, Kalimantan lost almost 25% of its cover between 1985 and 1997, and Sumatra lost 30% in the same period, suggesting that virtually all original lowland habitat may disappear in the near future, unless preventative measures can be implemented effectively. A similar scenario faces all other range states. Major fires in Borneo and Sumatra continue to affect enormous areas of forest while industrial-scale illegal logging is rampant in almost all "protected" areas. A secondary threat is imposed by widespread high levels of hunting.

Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded in several protected areas, including Taman Negara (Malaysia), Gunung Palung and Tanjung Puting National Parks (Kalimantan), Gunung Leuser and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Parks (Sumatra), and Gunung Mulu (Sarawak). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct comprehensive surveys to establish its current distribution and status, and gather data on its movements and ecological requirements. Formulate a management strategy for Sundaic birds largely reliant on lowland forest. Promote effective management of existing protected areas in the Sundaic region and the expansion of the protected area network. Lobby for reduced logging of lowland forests throughout its range.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brickle, N. W., Eaton, J. and Rheindt, F. E. 2010. A rapid bird survey of the Menyapa mountains, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forktail 26: 31-41.

Iqbal, M., Eaton, J. A., Udin, J. S., Prabowo, W. and Andika, A. Significance sightings on Large Green-Pigeon Treron capellei.

Meier, G. G. 2005. Grey Imperial Pigeon: a new record from East Kalimantan. BirdingAsia 3: 56-57.

Sheldon, F. H., Styring, A. and Hosner, A. 2010. Bird species richness in a Bornean exotic tree plantation: A long-term perspective. Biological Conservation 143: 399-407.

Slik, J. W. F.; Van Balen, S. 2006. Bird community changes in response to single and repeated fires in a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Borneo. Biodiversity and Conservation 15(14): 4425-4451.

Wielstra, B. and Pieterse, S. M. 2009. A bird survey of Gunung Lumut protection forest, east Kalimantan and a recommendation for its designation as Important Bird Area. Kukila 14: 1-15.

Wielstra, B., Boorsma, T. Pieterse, S. M. and Longh, H. H. 2011. The use of avian feeding guilds to detect small-scale forest disturbance: a case study in East Kalimantan, Borneo. Forktail 27: 55-62..

Woxvold, I. A.; Noske, R. A. 2011. Birds of kerangas, converted lands, mixed dipterocarp and riparian forests in Central and East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forktail 27: 39-54.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

Contributors
Aik, Y., Davison, G.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Treron capellei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Large green pigeon (Treron capellei) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Temminck, 1823)
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,140,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species