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Mindanao Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba crinigera
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Forest clearance within this species's range must have led to a rapid reduction of its small, fragmented population; a trend which is set to continue. For these reasons it is classified as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002a).

Gallicolumba criniger Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Gallicolumba criniger BirdLife International (2000), Gallicolumba criniger Collar et al. (1994)

30 cm. Medium-sized, short-tailed, ground-dwelling pigeon. Large blood-red central patch to otherwise white throat and breast. Iridescent bronzy-green crown, nape, upper mantle and breast-sides (forming an incomplete breast-band). Dark chestnut rest of upperparts with broad greyish bands across wing-coverts. Deep buff belly becoming creamy-white on vent. Subspecies show slight variation in breast pattern. Voice Thought to be a repeated, cooing woo-oo. Hints Feeds on forest floor. Shy, tends to run from danger, typically only flying short distances when flushed.

Distribution and population
Gallicolomba crinigera is endemic to the Philippines, where it is known from Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao and Basilan (Collar et al. 1999). There are records from c.35 localities, but since 1980 it has only been recorded from Rajah Sikatuna National Park on Bohol, Bislig on Mindanao and during recent surveys on Mount Hamiguitan and Mount Hilong-hilong in eastern Mindanao (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007). It always appears to have been rare throughout its range, although its aptitude for self-concealment may mean that it is under-recorded. Nevertheless, a substantial population decline is likely to have occurred.

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. This equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss.

It inhabits primary and secondary lowland and transitional dipterocarp forest below 750 m. It is highly terrestrial, favouring flat areas with only sparse undergrowth, particularly in dry, coastal areas. There is no evidence of seasonal movements, but a degree of nomadism or altitudinal displacement might be anticipated, perhaps linked to the rains (March-June), when it appears to breed.

The near-total loss of lowland forest throughout its range has caused its decline. In the late 1980s, forest cover was estimated at just 29% on Mindanao, and as little as 433 km2 of old-growth dipterocarp forest remained on Samar and Leyte, with most lowland forest leased to logging concessions and mining applications. Dinagat has lost practically all lowland forest as a result of illegal logging and, particularly, chromite and nickel surface-mining. Bohol is thought to retain only 4% forest cover, with tree-cutting, agricultural expansion and soil erosion all acting as threats to Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Forest at Bislig on Mindanao is being cleared under concession and re-planted with exotic trees for paper production. Elsewhere in eastern Mindanao where the largest old growth dipterocarp forest remain, illegal logging and mining persist at varying levels of intensity. In 2006, DENR-CARAGA Region confiscated 41,232 pieces or 12,998.27 cubic metres of illegally cut logs, amounting to around Php 18 million. Eliminating illegal logging remains difficult, with very limited capacity and logistics allotted by the government for monitoring and law enforcement. There are 51 mineral production sharing agreements (MPSA) at various levels of exploration and extraction approved since 1990 in eastern Mindanao alone. In the Tumadgo Peak IBA, almost 70% of unprotected dipterocarp and cloud forest is under MPSAs. Only 22% of the whole IBA, mostly high-elevation forest, is protected as wildlife sanctuary. Trapping for food and trade is a problem for all terrestrial birds in the Philippines.

Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded recently in a number of protected areas, e.g. Rajah Sikatuna National Park. Other areas, now afforded protection, where it formerly occurred (and may still occur) include Mt Malindang National Park, Mt Hilong-hilong (which includes a watershed reserve) and Mt Matutum Forest Reserve (a proposed national park). There is a stakeholder move to expand the coverage of the Mount Hamiguitan (Tumadgo Peak) Wildlife Sanctuary to include the lowland forests. A 7,000-hectare nesting site of the Philippine Eagle which includes Mindanao Bleeding Heart habitat was also recently declared by a local government as protected in Mount Hamiguitan (J. Ibanez in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys in remaining tracts of suitable habitat and areas with historical records, particularly on Samar and Leyte. Continue to advocate the effective protection of (possible) key sites. Propose remaining forests found to support the species for establishment as protected areas. Promote more effective enforcement of laws relating to hunting and trapping.

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Lowen, J., Taylor, J. & Symes, A.

Allen, D. & Ibanez, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Gallicolumba crinigera. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Mindanao bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba crinigera) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author (Pucheran, 1853)
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 94,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species