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Bannerman's Turaco Tauraco bannermani
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Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small range, which is severely fragmented and suffering a continuing decline owing to pressure from human use on its montane forest habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
43 cm. Large, green bird, dark green to paler green on the underparts with diagnostic (within its range) orange crest. In flight, shows bright crimson wing-patches. Juvenile a duller version of adult. Voice Typical kow kow kow of green turacos but higher-pitched and more rapid delivery. Song readily distinguished from Green Turaco T. persa by spacing between first note and rest of song. Hints Very secretive and difficult to see but has loud, distinctive call which can be heard for up to 1 km in hilly areas. Singing most frequent during the breeding season.

Distribution and population
Tauraco bannermani is mainly restricted to the Bamenda Highlands in western Cameroon, but small populations exist on nearby Mt Mbam (Njabo and Languy 2000) and, most recently discovered, at Fossimondi and Fomenji to the south-west. It is only likely to survive if the Kilum-Ijim forest, the largest remaining montane forest area in the Bamenda Highlands, is preserved (D. Thomas in litt. 1996). Research in 1994-1995 found the species in several remaining forest remnants in the Bamenda Highlands and seemingly able to survive in very small forest fragments (<1 km2) (McKay and Coulthard 1996). However, follow-up surveys in 2000 found some of these forest fragments had almost completely disappeared, with T. bannermani either absent or with only a few pairs remaining (Njabo and Languy 2000). In Kilum-Ijim, it is unlikely that more than 1,000-1,500 pairs occur (Forboseh and Ikfuingei 2001).

Population justification
The total population is estimated in the range 2,500-9,999 individuals based on data given by Forboseh and Ikfuingei (2001). This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be decreasing rapidly, in line with habitat loss and degradation within its range.

Ecology
It is an arboreal frugivore of montane forest (McKay 1994). It can survive in degraded and secondary forest as long as sufficient tall, fruiting trees remain (Stuart 1986). At lower altitudes, it is replaced by its congener, the Green Turaco T. persa, which is found in more open forest or scrub (McKay 1994, McKay and Coulthard 1996). It would appear to move to higher altitudes (2,200-2,600 m) during the breeding season, probably to exploit seasonal fruiting patterns (Forboseh and Ikfuingei 2001).

Threats
The greatest threat to this species is habitat loss: the Kilum-Ijim forest halved in area between 1963 and 1986. Following changes to a major long-term conservation project in 2004, it is reported that the threats of habitat loss and degradation at Kilum-Ijim have increased (P. Forboseh in litt. 2007, R. Fotso in litt. 2007, Stewart 2009). Forest fires are responsible for the greatest proportion of habitat loss (P. Forboseh in litt. 2003), for example c.500 ha of forest burnt around Lake Oku in March 2000 (J. DeMarco in litt. 2000). It is also under serious threat from forest clearance for agriculture, grazing, firewood and timber, with birds surviving in forest fragments in imminent danger of extinction (McKay and Coulthard 1996), particularly due to their reluctance to cross open habitats (Njabo and Languy 2000). The species is hunted for its feathers, which are given as awards in local ceremonies (K. Stewart in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Local communities are actively engaged in conserving montane forest, with support from the Kilum-Ijim Forest Project. However, there is now reportedly a lack of adequate conservation action taking place at Kilum-Ijim, despite the presence of many forest management institutions around the forest (P. Forboseh in litt. 2007). Community-based conservation activities were extended to other forest fragments in the Bamenda Highlands in 2000 (J. DeMarco in litt. 2000, P. Forboseh in litt. 2003). Conservation Actions Proposed
Study ecological constraints to its survival including seasonal food requirements, size of forest patches, tolerance of habitat degradation (Forboseh and Ikfuingei 2001) and competition with T. persa (Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett 1998c, J. DeMarco in litt. 2000). Conduct surveys to improve knowledge about the species's population size. Take measures to prevent forest fires (F. Maisels in litt. 1998) and educate communities about the magnitude of the forest fire problem (F. Maisels in litt. 1998). Protect as many as possible of the remaining forest fragments in the Bamenda Highlands (J. DeMarco in litt. 2000). Develop strategies for restoring larger blocks of natural forest and connecting corridors (J. DeMarco in litt. 2000) and establish captive breeding populations to assist in the recolonization of areas and the supplementation of existing populations.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F.; Dowsett, R. J. 1998. Surveys of Oku Mt and other IBAs in NW Province (Cameroon), February-March 1998.

Forboseh, P. F.; Ikfuingei, R. N. 2001. Estimating the population densities of Tauraco bannermani in the Kilum-Ijim forest, northwestern Cameroon. Ostrich Supplement(15): 114-118.

McKay, C. R. 1994. Survey of Important Bird Areas for Bannerman's Turaco Tauraco bannermani and Banded Wattle-eye Platysteira latincincta in North-west Cameroon, 1994.

McKay, C. R.; Coulthard, N. 1996. The Kilum-Ijim Forests IBA in Cameroon: monitoring biodiversity using birds as indicators.

Njabo, Y. K.; Languy, M. 2000. Surveys of selected montane and submontane forests in the Bamenda Highlands in March 2000.

Stewart, K. 2009. Effects of bark harvest and other human activity on populations of the African cherry (Prunus africana) on Mount Oku, Cameroon. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 1121–1128.

Stuart, S. N. 1986. Conservation of Cameroon montane forests. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
DeMarco, J., Forboseh, P., Fotso, R., Maisels, F., Thomas, D., Stewart, K.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tauraco bannermani. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Bannerman’s turaco (Tauraco bannermani) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Musophagidae (Turacos)
Species name author (Bates, 1923)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species