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Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline owing to habitat loss and, perhaps to a lesser extent, capture for the cage-bird trade.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
28 cm. Medium-sized, bright green parrot. Male has broad blue belly-patch. Rounded tail. Somewhat large, horn-coloured bill. Pale, bare eye-ring. Female generally paler. Similar spp. Amazona spp. are larger with shorter tails, and female Pileated Parrot Pionopsitta pileata is smaller. Voice Unpatterned thrush-like phrases. In flight, semi-whistled sounds like parakeet.

Distribution and population
Triclaria malachitacea occurs mostly in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, south-eastern Brazil. There are additional records from southern Bahia (none since 1833), Minas Gerais (a few doubtful records), Espírito Santo (four or five sites), Paraná (three modern records) and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley, Tijucas Valley and Serra do Mar region, in the north of the state [do Rosário 1996, G. Kohler in litt. 2011]). The species is fairly common in large forest fragments in the Itajaí Valley (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). Because of habitat changes in the Santa Catarina lowlands, most recent records in that state are from montane forests (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). Two records from Misiones, Argentina, require confirmation. The population was formerly estimated at fewer than 5,000 individuals (Lambert et al. 1993), but Bencke (1996) suggested that there may be c.10,000 in Rio Grande do Sul and significant numbers on the east slope of the Serra do Mar; however, the apparent rarity of the species suggests that these figures may be an overestimate (J. Gilardi in litt. 2010). Overall, the population is suspected to be in decline, although in Tres Picos State Park, Rio de Janeiro, it appears to have been stable since c.2003 (A. Foster in litt. 2013).


Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is generally described as 'rare' (Stotz et al. 1996), although it is locally common in places.

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss and perhaps, to a much lesser extent, capture for the bird trade. The decline is not thought to be more rapid because the species occurs in montane areas where deforestation is typically less severe, it appears to tolerate mature secondary forest, and anecdotal observations suggest it is locally stable, for example in Tres Picos State Park, Rio de Janeiro (A. Foster in litt. 2013).

Ecology
It inhabits lower montane and escarpment forests up to 1,000 m, ranging into lowland forests outside the breeding season. Its preference is for primary or mature secondary growth forests, with a good availability of nesting sites (hollow trees) (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). In Rio Grande do Sul, it nests on flat, ridgeline terrain (possibly an artefact of lowland forest destruction) (Bencke 1998) but, in the Serra do Mar, most records are along valley watercourses. Trichilia claussenii may be an important nest-tree in Rio Grande do Sul, with Eugenia rostrifolia, Alchornea triplinervea and Cupania vernalis frequently possessing suitable natural cavities (Bencke 1998). Nesting occurs from September (October in Rio Grande do Sul) to January (Bencke 1998). It has a varied diet, including palmito palms Euterpe edulis and occasionally maize (Bencke 1996). It is susceptible to fragmentation and appears to require fragments of over 60 ha to persist (Uezu et al. 2005).


Threats
The species is mainly affected by the destruction and modification of its preferred habitats, as well as the removal of juveniles from the nests for sale (G. Kohler in litt. 2011). There has been extensive habitat loss for agricultural conversion, urbanisation and intensive palmito collecting within the species's range. Even the moister valleys in the Serra do Mar are under conversion to banana plantations on the lower slopes. In Rio Grande do Sul, cutting for fuelwood to cure tobacco is fragmenting habitat (Bencke 1996). During the mid-1980s, small numbers were found in international trade. There is some internal trade but the species is rarely recorded in captivity (Bencke 1996, C. Yamashita in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II and protected under Brazilian law. It has been recorded in at least 14 protected areas in Brazil (Develey 1997), and most recent observations outside Rio Grande do Sul have been in reserves. In Rio Grande do Sul, clearance of native forest is prohibited, fuelwood extraction requires a licence and suitable areas for incorporation in a reserve network have been identified (Bencke 1996). Some preliminary public awareness activities have been undertaken (Bencke 1996). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to quantify the species's population size. Conduct regular surveys to monitor population trends. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation across the species's range. Investigate the true impact of capture for trade. Increase the area of suitable habitat within protected areas, and create a reserve network in Rio Grande do Sul, implemented at the municipal level through land acquisition (Bencke 1996). Initiate a long-term plan for sustainable forest management of tobacco in Rio Grande do Sul (Bencke 1996). Expand public awareness activities at appropriate properties and schools (Bencke 1996).

References
Bencke, G. A. 1996. The ecology and conservation of the Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea in forest fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Bencke, G. A. 1998. Notes on the breeding of Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea. Cotinga 10: 71-78.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Develey, P. F. 1997. Ecologia de bandos mistos de aves de Mata Atlântica na Estaçao Ecológica Juréia-Itatins.

do Rosário, L. A. 1996. As aves em Santa Catarina: distribuiçao geográfica e meio ambiente. Glorianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Lambert, F.; Wirth, R.; Seal, U. S.; Thomsen, J. B.; Ellis-Joseph, S. 1993. Parrots: an action plan for their conservation 1993-1998.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Uezu, A.; Metzger, J. P.; Vielliard, J.M.E. 2005. Effects of structural and functional connectivity and patch size on the abundance of seven Atlantic Forest bird species. Biological Conservation 123: 507-519.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Babarskas, M., Benstead, P., Capper, D., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Foster, A., Gilardi, J. & Kohler, G.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Triclaria malachitacea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Blue-bellied parrot (Triclaria malachitacea) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Spix, 1824)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 30,300 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species