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Yellow-faced Amazon Alipiopsitta xanthops

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because its population is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Amazona xanthops Collar et al. (1994), Amazona xanthops Collar and Andrew (1988), Amazona xanthops BirdLife International (2000), Amazona xanthops BirdLife International (2004), Amazona xanthops Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Amazona xanthops Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
26.5 cm. Green-and-yellow parrot. Pale green above. Yellow crown, lores and cheeks. Rest of head yellow, broadly scaled green. Greenish-yellow underparts scaled green. Yellow patches with orange mottling on sides of belly. White periocular. Distinctive bill with mostly dark maxilla and yellowish mandible. Immature is greener and has more restricted yellow on head. Similar spp. Blue-fronted Amazon A. aestiva is larger, with turquoise forecrown and different breast pattern. Voice High-pitched kréwe-kréwe and grayo-grayo calls.

Distribution and population
Alipiopsitta xanthops is restricted to the cerrado biome of interior Brazil (Maranhão, Piauí, Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and formerly São Paulo) (Snyder et al. 2000) and north-central Bolivia (two records from Beni: San Joaquín, east of río Mamoré, in 1964 and a captive bird caught north of Santa Ana in the 1990s) (Remsen et al. 1986, Armonía 1995, C. Yamashita in litt. 2000). It has been listed for Paraguay (Forshaw and Cooper 1989), but there is no confirmed evidence of its presence (Hayes 1995). It is occasionally locally common (Sick 1993), but mainly occurs at low densities and is now absent in many parts of its former range.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
This semi-nomadic cerrado specialist occurs in wooded grassland (cerradão), spiny arid scrub (caatinga), gallery forest and Mauritia palm-stands (Willis and Oniki 1988, Sick 1993). It is a generalist and its diet consists of flowers, fruit and seeds (Bianchi 2009). Food species include Pouteria ramiflora, Mauritia flexuosa, Erythroxylum suberosum, Annona coriacea, Rubus cf. fruticosusas (Bianchi 2009), Anacardium, Salacia crassifolia and Astronium fraxinifolium (Juniper and Parr 1998). Birds have been reported taking unripe guava Psidium fruit in plantations and will spend weeks visiting mango trees (Juniper and Parr 1998, Bianchi 2009). Maize Zea mays is also eaten (Bianchi 2009). Birds have been observed feeding opportunistically on termites (Bianchi 2009). However, the semi-nomadism of the species suggests that it depends on unpredictable food resources. Breeding takes place between May and October in Emas National Park (Bianchi 2009).

Threats
By 1993, two-thirds of the Cerrado region had been either heavily or moderately altered (Conservation International 1999), with most of the destruction having occurred since 1950 (Cavalcanti 1999). High-quality cerrado grasslands are being rapidly destroyed by mechanised agriculture, intensive cattle-ranching, afforestation, invasive grasses, excessive use of pesticides and annual burning ( Stotz et al. 1996, Parker and Willis 1997). Caatinga habitats are less threatened, but still suffer conversion to agriculture, grazing and burning. Nine wild-caught birds were recorded in international trade in 1991-1995 (Snyder et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs notably in Emas, Brasília, Araguaia, Grande Sertões Veredas, Chapada dos Veadeiros and Chapada dos Guimarães National Parks and Mangabeiras Environmental Protection Area (Forrester 1993, Machado et al. 1998, F. Olmos in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000), but no protected area holds permanent populations. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine its current distribution (Snyder et al. 2000), especially in poorly-known reserves such as Uruçuí-Una Ecological Station, Piauí, and Mirador State Park, Maranhão (F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Collate data on specimen and recent records to provide an improved assessment of distribution and status. Estimate the total wild population (Bianchi 2009). Assess the impact of habitat loss (Snyder et al. 2000). Create a network of large reserves in Bahia, Maranhão and Piauí (F. Olmos in litt. 1999). Effectively protect Mangabeiras.

References
Armonía. 1995. Lista de las aves de Bolivia. Armonía, Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

Bianchi, C. A. 2009. Notes on the ecology of the Yellow-faced Parrot (Alipiopsitta xanthops) in central Brazil. Ornitologia Neotropical 20(4): 479-489.

Braz, V. S.; Abreu, T. L. S.; Leite, L. O.; Lopes, L. E.; França, F. G. R. 2002. Levantamento preliminar da avifauna da regiao do Jalapao, Tocantins. Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 228-229.

Cavalcanti, R. B. 1999. Bird species richness and conservation in the Cerrado region of central Brazil. Studies in Avian Biology 19: 244-249.

Conservation International. 1999. Açoes prioritárias para a conservaçao da biodiversidade do Cerrado e Pantanal.

Forrester, B. C. 1993. Birding Brazil: a check-list and site guide. Privately published, Irvine, Scotland.

Forshaw, J. M.; Cooper, W. T. 1989. Parrots of the world. Blandford Press, London.

Hayes, F. E. 1995. Status, distribution and biogeography of the birds of Paraguay. American Birding Association, Colorado Springs.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Machado, A. B. M.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Machado, R. B.; Aguiar, L. M. De S.; Lins, L. V. 1998. Livro Vermelho: das espécies ameaçadas de extinça1o da fauna de Minas Gerais. Fundaça1o Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.

MMA. 2002. Biodiversidade brasileira: avaliaçao e identificaçao das áreas e açoes priortitárias para conservaçao, utilizaçao, utilizaçao sustentável e repartiçao de beneficios da biodiversidade brasìleira.

Parker, T. A.; Willis, E. O. 1997. Notes on three tiny grassland flycatchers, with comments on the disappearance of South American fire-diversified savannas. Ornithological Monographs 48: 549-555.

Santos, M. P. D. 2001. Avifauna da Serra de Uruçui, Piauí. Resumos do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 237-238.

Santos, M. P. D. 2001. Avifauna Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, Piauí. Resumos do VIII Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia: 238-239.

Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: a natural history. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Willis, E. O.; Oniki, Y. 1988. Bird conservation in open vegetation of Sa1o Paulo state, Brazil. In: Goriup, P.D. (ed.), Ecology and conservation of grassland birds, pp. 67-70. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Olmos, F., Silva, P., Silva, S., Yamashita, C.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Alipiopsitta xanthops. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Yellow-faced Amazon (Alipiopsitta xanthops) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Spix, 1824)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species