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Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis

Justification
Trapping for the cagebird trade and habitat loss are the most important threats to this species. Despite heavy trapping pressure in the early 1990s, the species's range is believed to have remained essentially the same, and populations have remained stable or declined less steeply than was previously feared they might, with a recent estimate even suggesting a population increase. Owing to its small breeding range and highly fragmented habitat, the species qualifies as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
37 cm. Green parrot with colourful head. Overall deep green with yellowish margins to feathers. Red forecrown and lores, becoming purplish on mid-crown. Bluish auricular and face, paler on cheeks and throat. Duskier wings with some red on shoulders. Bluish base to tail feathers, broad red band and yellow tips, except green central rectrices. Horn-coloured bill. Voice High-pitched and musical growls, klit-cráu, klit-cráú, and liquid chatters.

Distribution and population
Amazona brasiliensis occurs in a narrow littoral strip, between the Serra do Mar and coast, from Itanhaém in São Paulo through Paraná to extreme north-east Santa Catarina, south-east Brazil (Lalime 1997). Breeding areas are mostly located on small estuarine islands with few on the mainland. Populations were thought to have declined from c.3,500-4,500 birds in the 1980s to fewer than 2,000 individuals by 1991-1992 (Martuscelli and Scherer Neto 1993). A recent estimate of 6,600 individuals suggests long-term conservation measures have enabled the speccies to make a recovery (Waugh 2006). The population in Paraná was estimated at 3,600 in 1996 (Lalime 1999), and a more recent census found 3,379 birds, suggesting that the population there is either stable or has suffered a small decline (F. Olmos in litt. 2003).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 4,000-5,500 individuals, roughly equating to 2,700-3,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Long-term conservation measures are suspected to have contributed to a recent population increase at an unquantified rate, although habitat fragmentation and poaching remain significant threats (Waugh 2006).

Ecology
Almost the entire population migrates daily between mangrove and littoral forest roosting and breeding areas, and Atlantic forest feeding areas. It feeds primarily below 200 m, but has been recorded up to 700 m (Lalime 1997). At the extremes, breeding occurs from late August to early March, with up to four eggs laid in natural tree-cavities, mostly in Gerivá palms Syagrus romanzoffianum and Guanandi Callophyllum brasiliense (Lalime 1997, Lalime 1999). Although essentially frugivorous, it also feeds on leaves, flowers and insects within fruit (Lalime 1997).

Threats
There is extensive poaching for national and (especially) international trade with 356 birds, mostly nestlings, captured during 1991-1992 breeding season in the municipality of Cananéia (a quarter of the species's range) (Martuscelli 1994). Of 47 nests monitored between 1990 and 1994, six were naturally predated and the other 41 robbed by humans (Martuscelli 1997). Nest-cavities are virtually always damaged when removing nestlings, reducing the number available (Martuscelli 1994). There is continuing habitat loss for boat building, banana plantations, cattle- and buffalo-grazing and beach houses (Lalime 1999, Snyder et al. 2000). Palmito palms are cut for processing in Guaraqueçaba (Lalime 1999). The proposed construction of a bridge to Ilha Comprida will increase pressure from tourism and habitat conversion (Snyder et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II and protected under Brazilian law. It occurs within 15 protected areas, but these are not locally enforced (Martuscelli 1994, Lalime 1999). Superagui National Park, Paraná protects the stronghold (R. Bóçon in litt. 2006). The creation of new reserves is hampered by economic interests (Martuscelli 1994). Several programmes are raising local awareness (Martuscelli 1994, Lalime 1999, Padua et al. 2001). Conservation projects and the protected areas created in the species range seem to be paying off, although some trapping still occurs. There are studbooks and successful captive-breeding programmes in the European Union and Brazil (Lucker 1998) and the provision of artificial nests and the repair of natural nesting cavities is boosting reproductive success in the wild (Waugh 2006). The Red-tailed Amazon Conservation Project is monitoring the population in Paraná (R. Bóçon in litt. 2006). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to monitor population trends and support captive breeding programmes. Monitor rates of off-take for trade. Monitor trade levels. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation. Enforce laws on trafficking, especially on access routes to breeding islands (Lalime 1997, Lalime 1999). Effectively protect existing reserves (Lalime 1997, Lalime 1999). Formally designate Ilha Comprida State Park and Itapanhapina Ecological Station (Snyder et al. 2000). Expand Superagüi National Park to include Ilha do Pinheiro (Snyder et al. 2000). Reforest breeding islands (Lalime 1999). Continue and expand awareness efforts (Lalime 1999).

References
Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Lücker, H. 1998. Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis.

Lalime, J. M. 1997. What we know about the Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis. Papageienkunde 1: 107-140.

Lalime, J. M. 1999. The Red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis): where we are on the path to conservation. Papageienkunde 3: 33-49.

Martuscelli, P. 1994. A parrot with a tiny distribution and a big problem: will illegal trade wipe out the Red-tailed Amazon? PsittaScene 6(3): 3-7.

Martuscelli, P. 1997. Nest predation on the Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Papageienkunde 1: 183-188.

Martuscelli, P.; Scherer Neto, P. 1993. Conservation of the Red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) in Southeastern Brazil. Pitirre 6(1): 7.

Padua, S. M.; Navas, S.; Oliveira, K.; Carrillio, A. C. 2001. Saving the Red-tailed Amazon, flagship of the Atlantic rainforest in Brazil. Cyanopsitta 61: 12-17.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Waugh, D. 2006. Reproductive activity of wild Red-tailed Amazons Amazona brasiliensis. Cyanopsitta: 12-13.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Bóçon, R., Olmos, F.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona brasiliensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 2700-3700 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species