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LC
Bronze-winged Parrot Pionus chalcopterus

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction. This species is noted to be declining in Colombia and western Ecuador, owing to the clearance of subtropical forest, which has been severe and rapid on Andean slopes (Juniper and Parr 1998). Anecdotal evidence, based on the frequency of sightings, suggests that the species has declined in Piñas, southern Ecuador, over the past c.15-20 years (M. Sanchez per D. Díaz in litt. 2011). It is also said to have been extirpated from formerly occupied areas such as the Andean slopes of Cauca and Magdalena Valleys in Colombia, again owing to habitat loss (Juniper and Parr 1998). In Venezuela the species is scarce and local, being largely confined to the western slope of the Mérida Andes and Sierra de Perijá, with occasional records in Táchira (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011). These areas have experienced rapid deforestation over at least the past 24 years for cultivation and livestock farming. Surveys in north-western Peru in the late 1990s appeared to detect a marked decline in the population since 1993 (Rosales et al. 2007), although this species is known to be nomadic and its local numbers may fluctuate.

Despite these observations, the species is not thought to be threatened (T. Donegan in litt. 2011, J. Freile in litt. 2011, Y. Molina-Martínez in litt. 2011).

Threats
The species is relatively scarce in captivity (Juniper and Parr 1998), as it is not a main target of trappers and nest-poachers (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011, R. Clay in litt. 2011), although it is still present in illegal trade in Peru (F. Angulo in litt. 2011) and, perhaps more importantly, it is persecuted as an agricultural pest (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011, R. Clay in litt. 2011, Y. Molina-Martínez in litt. 2011).

References
Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1997. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, Sussex, UK.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Rosales, M., Valdivia, R. and Sovero, M. 2007. Evaluación Poblacional de Psittácidos en el Noroeste del Perú (1997-1999). Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales, Lima, Peru.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.

Contributors
Sharpe, C J, Cortes, O., Donegan, T., Freile, J., Acevedo , O., Molina-Martínez, Y., Clay, R., Cuervo, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pionus chalcopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Fraser, 1841)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 177,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species