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Yellow-faced Parrotlet Forpus xanthops

Justification
Rapid population reductions have been observed in this species owing to exploitation for the cage-bird trade. The rate of decline was probably very rapid during the early 1980s, but the situation has now improved. In the absence of recent field surveys, its conservation status is difficult to assess, but is considered Vulnerable because of the reduced level of trade. The species is currently known from only a few locations and has a very small range, so if trading were to increase and the population declined again, its status would revert to Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
15 cm. Green-and-yellow parrotlet. Overall green with bright yellow crown, lores, ear-coverts and chin, fringed with pale blue postocular stripe continuing around rear of ear-coverts. Cobalt-blue lower back, rump and uppertail-coverts, wing-patch and underwing-coverts. Female has paler back and rump, and less blue in wing. Similar spp. Pacific Parrotlet F. coelestis lacks yellow. Voice When perched, a rapid squeaky cheet-cheet-cheet.

Distribution and population
Forpus xanthops occurs in the upper Marañón Valley, in south Amazonas, south-east Cajamarca and east La Libertad, north-central Peru. Most recent records originate from the Balsas area, in Amazonas/Cajamarca, and the Chagual/Hacienda Soquián area, in La Libertad (Begazo 1996, Begazo et al. 2001, R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999), but intervening areas are considerably less accessible. Records formerly assigned to this taxon in the Bagua area of the Marañón and Utcubamba valleys, north Peru (Dorst 1957), refer to F. coelestis (R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998, T. S. Schulenberg in litt. 1999, N. Krabbe in litt. 2000). It was formerly abundant (Begazo 1996), but suffered a serious decline, probably during the 1980s, when it became rare in the more accessible areas (Begazo 1996, J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999). In 1988, numbers were extremely low, with only 168 individuals counted during extensive surveys. It appears to be recovering somewhat following a ban on trade, and the number of birds traded has fallen markedly (Begazo 1996). However, there is little evidence of a substantial recovery (J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999), and the species remains scarce and difficult to detect (R. Williams in litt. 2012).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals, based on surveys by Begazo (1996) and a subsequent small scale population recovery. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
Numbers of this species seem to have stabilised following a ban on trapping and trade.

Ecology
It inhabits arid woodland, riparian thickets and desert scrub (Juniper and Parr 1998) at 600-2,000 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007). It is known to feed on canaquil Cercidium praecox, pate flowers Bombax discolor, and plum fruits Prunus domestica (Begazo 1996, F. Angulo Pratolongo in litt. 2012). In captivity, 3-6 eggs are laid, and up to three broods are raised per year. In the wild, the breeding season begins in March and April, and nesting takes place in natural dirt and rock walls, in colonies of up to 70 birds (Begazo 1996).

Threats
Trapping for the local cage-bird trade is probably the sole reason for its recent and drastic decline. Trappers estimate that over 17,000 birds were caught in 1981-1994 (a claim verified by dealers), and 1,481 were legally exported in 1981-1984 (Begazo 1996), but no wild-caught specimens were recorded in international trade in 1991-1995 (Snyder et al. 2000). The mortality rate between capture and sale is estimated at 40-100% (Dorst 1957), inevitably raising demand. By 1988, trade was reduced, with just 56 birds recorded in Lima's bird market that year (Begazo 1996). In a study during 2007-2008, 16 individuals were recorded at a market in Chiclayo, the true number traded being much higher since the rate of detection was estimated to be 3% (Gastañaga et al. 2011). An emerging threat is the building of dams on the Marañón, with four planned to be finished by the mid-2010s (Dourojeanni et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is legally protected in Peru but this is poorly enforced. Capture rates have decreased markedly since the ban, and trappers apparently only capture the species to order (Begazo 1996). There are no protected areas within its range. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey the population, especially in the less accessible centre of its range, and between the known ranges of the two Forpus species. Monitor the population, working with local people to generate the will to conserve the species in situ (Begazo 1996). Study its biology and ecology throughout an annual cycle. Control trade and enforce laws on trapping. Create at least one protected area within the species range (Angulo et al. 2008).


References
Angulo, F., Palomino, W., Arnal, H., Aucca, C. y Uchofen, O. 2008. Corredor de Conservación de Aves Marañón - Alto Mayo: Análisis de Distribución de Aves de Alta Prioridad de Conservación e Identificación de Propuestas de Áreas para su Conservación. Asociación Ecosistemas Andinos – American Bird Conservancy, Lima, Perú.

Begazo, A. J. 1996. Ecology and conservation of the the Yellow-faced Parrotlet Forpus xanthops. Cotinga: 20-23.

Begazo, A.J., Valqui, T., Sokol, M. and Langlois, E. 2001. Notes on some birds from central and northern Peru. Cotinga 15: 81-87.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Dorst, J. 1957. Contribution à l'étude écologique des oiseaux du haut Marañón (Pérou septentrional). L'Oiseau et la Revue Française d'Ornithologie 27: 235-269.

Dourojeanni, M.; Barandiarán, A.; Dourojeanni, D. 2009. Amazonía Peruana en 2021. ProNaturaleza, Lima.

Gastaaga, M., Macleod, R., Hennessey, R. B., Ugarte Nez, J., Puse, E., Arrascue, A., Hoyos, J., Maldonado Chambi, W., Vasquez, J., Engblom, G. 2011. A study of the parrot trade in Peru and the potential importance of internal trade for threatened species. Bird Conservation International 21: 76-85.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Hornbuckle, J., Krabbe, N., Rowlett, R., Schulenberg, T., Webster, R., Angulo Pratolongo, F., Williams, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Forpus xanthops. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Yellow-faced parrotlet (Forpus xanthops) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Salvin, 1895)
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species