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Black Woodpecker Dryocopus martius
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass 321.0 g

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 740,000-1,400,000 breeding pairs, equating to 2,220,000-4,200,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,530,000-16,800,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in China; < c.100 breeding pairs in Korea; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The species has expanded its range in western Europe, central Europe and Japan (del Hoyo et al. 2002). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Andorra Native Extant       Yes
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant       Yes
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Finland Native Extant       Yes
France Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant       Yes
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant Yes      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Liechtenstein Native Extant       Yes
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia Native Extant Yes     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant       Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Native Extant Yes      
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein site factsheet
Austria Vienna forest site factsheet
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse site factsheet
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel site factsheet
Belgium Lesse et Lomme site factsheet
Belgium Saint-Hubert site factsheet
Bulgaria Central Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Persenk site factsheet
Bulgaria Pirin site factsheet
Bulgaria Rila site factsheet
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes site factsheet
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Doupov hills site factsheet
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) site factsheet
Czech Republic Labské pískovce sandstones site factsheet
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Denmark Almindingen site factsheet
Denmark Gribskov Area site factsheet
Denmark Rold Skov site factsheet
Estonia Kõrvemaa site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune site factsheet
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux site factsheet
France Bassigny site factsheet
France Bazoncourt-Vigy site factsheet
France Etangs d'Argonne site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan site factsheet
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris site factsheet
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs site factsheet
France Forêt de Haguenau site factsheet
France Forêt de la Reine site factsheet
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth site factsheet
France Forêts d'altitude du Jura : forêt du Risol et Mont d'Or site factsheet
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel site factsheet
France Forêts du Perche site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : massif de Saint-Gobain site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi site factsheet
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants site factsheet
France Gorges de la Truyère site factsheet
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte site factsheet
France Haut Val d'Allier site factsheet
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles site factsheet
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau site factsheet
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes site factsheet
France Massif des Vosges : crêtes de Schneeberg au Donon site factsheet
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges site factsheet
France Massif du Canigou-Carança site factsheet
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes site factsheet
France Parc National des Cévennes site factsheet
France Parc National des Ecrins site factsheet
France Parc National du Mercantour site factsheet
France Plateau Ardennais site factsheet
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux site factsheet
France Puig Carlit et environs site factsheet
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire site factsheet
France Vallée du Haut-Guil site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg site factsheet
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut site factsheet
Italy Adamello-Brenta site factsheet
Italy Agri Valley site factsheet
Italy Aspromonte site factsheet
Italy Belluno Dolomites site factsheet
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa site factsheet
Italy Gran Paradiso site factsheet
Italy Ligurian Alps site factsheet
Italy Maritime Alps site factsheet
Italy Mount Grappa site factsheet
Italy Picentini mountains site factsheet
Italy Sila Grande site factsheet
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys site factsheet
Latvia Gauja national park site factsheet
Latvia Irbe valley and Dizpurvs site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Razna site factsheet
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs site factsheet
Lithuania Buda-Pravieniskes forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex site factsheet
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard site factsheet
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east site factsheet
Luxembourg Mines of the region of Differdange site factsheet
Netherlands Brabantse Wal site factsheet
Netherlands De Hamert/Bergerbossen site factsheet
Netherlands Drents-Friese Wold site factsheet
Netherlands Sallandse Heuvelrug site factsheet
Netherlands Veluwe site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Biala Forest site factsheet
Poland Knyszyn Forest site factsheet
Poland Notec Forest site factsheet
Poland Pisz forest site factsheet
Poland Roztocze site factsheet
Poland Solska Forest site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Baraolt Mountains - Bodoc site factsheet
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley site factsheet
Romania Grădiştea Muncelului site factsheet
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain site factsheet
Romania Trascău Mountains site factsheet
Romania Vânători - Neamţ site factsheet
Romania Vrancea Mountains site factsheet
Slovakia Laborecka upland site factsheet
Slovakia Malá Fatra site factsheet
Slovakia Slanské hills site factsheet
Slovakia Velká Fatra site factsheet
Slovakia Volovské hills site factsheet
Spain Alt Pallars site factsheet
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Babia-Somiedo site factsheet
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho site factsheet
Spain Boumort mountains site factsheet
Spain Cadí mountains site factsheet
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains site factsheet
Spain Degaña-Hermo site factsheet
Spain Gistaín-Cotiella site factsheet
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Muniellos site factsheet
Spain Ordesa-Bielsa site factsheet
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range site factsheet
Spain Posets-Maladeta site factsheet
Spain Riaño site factsheet
Spain Roncesvalles-Irati-Abodi mountain range site factsheet
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag site factsheet
Spain San Mauricio-Bohí-Beret site factsheet
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis site factsheet
Sweden Båtfors-Bredfors site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Florarna site factsheet
Sweden Western part of lake Mälaren site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 100 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Dryocopus martius. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment