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Varzea Piculet Picumnus varzeae
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Justification
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, along with the projected impacts of large hydroelectric projects, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline very rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted from Least Concern to Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
8-9 cm. Tiny, brown woodpecker. Crown, forehead and nape are black, spotted white, the male with red-tipped feathers on the crown and upper forehead. Sides of head and neck are dark brown with irregular black vermiculation. Upperparts are dark brown to greenish brown, with paler underparts. Black-and-white tail. Short bill. Grey legs.

Distribution and population
Picumnus varzeae has a small range within Amazonian Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 2002). It is known from the area between the lower Rio Madeira in east Amazonas, and Obidos in extreme north-west Pará, although it may have a slightly wider distribution than this (del Hoyo et al. 2002, A. Lees in litt. 2011).

Population justification
This is a poorly known species and no population estimates are available.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 61.5-62.1% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (13 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by ≥50% over three generations.

Ecology
This is a poorly known species of lowland "várzea" (seasonally flooded forest), preferring dense undergrowth, and possibly tolerating disturbance to some extent (del Hoyo et al. 2002, M. Cohn-Haft in litt. 2011). It is likely to breed between June and December (del Hoyo et al. 2002).

Threats

This species is projected to lose more than half of its available habitat as a result of accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Its flooded habitat is threatened with further degradation by the building of hydroelectric plants (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2002. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Contributors
Lees, A., Cohn-Haft, M.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Picumnus varzeae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author Snethlage, 1912
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 190,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species