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Speckle-chested Piculet Picumnus steindachneri
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Justification
This species is known from few locations, has a small overall range, and is seriously threatened by continuing deforestation, which is predicted to cause very rapid declines over the next three generations. Because of the rate of this predicted decline it has been uplisted to Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
10 cm. Tiny, black-and-white woodpecker. Dark grey upperparts with faint pale scaling. Prominent white fringes to wing feathers. Black crown and breast spotted white. White belly barred black. Male has extensive red tips to crown feathers. Voice High-pitched trill lasting several seconds.

Distribution and population
Picumnus steindachneri occurs in the central Huallaga valley and very locally in the Utcubamba valley in the Andes of north-west San Martín and south-east Amazonas, Peru (Schulenberg et al. 2007). It is known from very few locations (Taczanowski 1882, Hornbuckle 1999b, R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998, J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, 2007), but there are no recent records from the type-locality near Mendoza, and it is likely to have been extirpated from the area. It has been described as fairly common or common in the Abra Patricia area (the best-known location) (Hornbuckle 1999b).

Population justification
The species is described as uncommon and geographically restricted. Its population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 64.6-65.2% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (13 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by ≥50% over three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits humid tropical and lower montane forests with many epiphytes and tall secondary growth at elevations from 1,100 m to at least 2,200 m (Winkler et al. 1995, J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, 2007, Clements and Shany 2001). It may be seen singly, in pairs or small family groups, and often moves through the canopy with mixed-species flocks (Winkler et al. 1995, R. Webster and R. A. Rowlett in litt. 1998).


Threats
Forests within its range have been logged since 1930 or earlier (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). Deforestation for coca plantations was a threat in the early 1980s, but commercial production now appears to have ceased in the area (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). Continuing population growth and immigration have led to heavy disturbance of (and deep intrusions into) forests where the species occurs, both through clear-cutting and selective logging (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). This situation is particularly concerning in the south-east of its range, where forest is now confined to the highest slopes (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). Large areas have been converted to agriculture (especially coffee plantations) and pastures (Dinerstein et al. 1995, Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999, Hornbuckle 1999b).

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Alto Mayo Protected Forest, which was designated in 1986 to protect the río Alto Mayo watershed for agricultural sustainability (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). However, forest clearance has continued unabated (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). Discussions with local leaders, public talks and media interviews have been conducted to advocate protection of forests in north-west San Martín (Dillon and Sánchez Vega 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys of the isolated east-Andean ridges of this region (Hornbuckle 1999b). Assess population status and ecological requirements. Control logging and habitat conversion in Alto Mayo Protected Forest, working with agricultural interests to protect the watershed. Support conservation groups currently working to protect forests in the region (Hornbuckle 1999b). Proposed sites for protection are listed in Angulo et al. (2008).

References
Angulo, F., Palomino, W., Arnal, H., Aucca, C. y Uchofen, O. 2008. Corredor de Conservación de Aves Marañón - Alto Mayo: Análisis de Distribución de Aves de Alta Prioridad de Conservación e Identificación de Propuestas de Áreas para su Conservación. Asociación Ecosistemas Andinos – American Bird Conservancy, Lima, Perú.

Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Hornbuckle, J. 1999. The birds of Abra Patricia and the upper río Mayo, San Martín, north Peru. Cotinga 12: 11-28.

Sánchez Vega, I. and Dillon, M.O. 2000. Un nueva especie de Mikania (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae) de Piura, Perú. Arnaldoa 7(1-2): 1-12.

Schulenberg, T. S., Stotz, D. F. Lane, D. F. O'Neill, J. P. Parker, T. A. III. 2007. Birds of Peru.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Taczanowski, L. 1882. Liste des oiseaux recueillis par M. Stolzmann au Pérou nord-oriental. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 2-49.

Winkler, H.; Christie, D. A.; Nurney, D. 1995. Woodpeckers: a guide to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Fjeldså, J., Rowlett, R., Webster, R., Angulo Pratolongo, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Picumnus steindachneri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Speckle-chested piculet (Picumnus steindachneri) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author Taczanowski, 1882
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species