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Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.2,800,000-3,300,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable or increasing (Wetlands International 2006), e.g. the population trend is increasing in North America (based on BBS/CBC data: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant   Yes    
Algeria Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant   Yes    
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Bangladesh Native Extant   Yes    
Barbados Vagrant Extant        
Belarus Native Extant     Yes Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant   Yes    
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Burundi Vagrant Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant     Yes Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Dominica Vagrant Extant        
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant        
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ghana Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Haiti Vagrant Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant   Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malaysia Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant        
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mexico Vagrant Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes    
Montserrat (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant     Yes Yes
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Papua New Guinea Vagrant Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant   Yes    
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Somalia Vagrant Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant   Yes    
St Kitts and Nevis Vagrant Extant        
St Lucia Vagrant Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Vagrant Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant   Yes    
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Vagrant Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Venezuela Vagrant Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Albania Karavasta Lagoon site factsheet
Albania Lalzi Bay site factsheet
Albania Narta Lagoon site factsheet
Algeria Barrage de la Cheffia site factsheet
Algeria Lac Fetzara site factsheet
Algeria Lac Oubeïra site factsheet
Algeria Marais de Mekhada site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Bangladesh Muhuri Dam site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart site factsheet
Belgium Polderkomplex site factsheet
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde site factsheet
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor site factsheet
Denmark Rømø site factsheet
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning site factsheet
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea) site factsheet
Egypt Lake Burullus site factsheet
Estonia Mullutu site factsheet
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW) site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) site factsheet
Greece Mesolongi and Aetoliko lagoons, and Acheloos and Evinos estuaries site factsheet
India Bahour Lake site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Ousteri Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iraq Baquba wetlands site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah site factsheet
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh site factsheet
Ireland Lough Foyle site factsheet
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon site factsheet
Italy Diaccia Botrona site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon site factsheet
Italy Isonzo mouth, Cona island and Panzano Gulf site factsheet
Italy Po Delta site factsheet
Italy Venice lagoon site factsheet
Japan Lake Biwako site factsheet
Japan Lake Furenko and nearby wetlands site factsheet
Japan Lake Komukeko and Lake Shibunotsunaiko site factsheet
Japan Lower Yoshinogawa river site factsheet
Japan Notsuke bay, Odaito site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea site factsheet
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Shoshkaly Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake site factsheet
Morocco Merja Zerga site factsheet
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast site factsheet
Netherlands Groote Wielen site factsheet
Netherlands Haringvliet site factsheet
Netherlands Ilperveld, Varkensland and Twiske site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Eemmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake IJsselmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Markermeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Netherlands Lauwersmeer site factsheet
Netherlands Oosterschelde site factsheet
Netherlands Oude Venen site factsheet
Netherlands Polder Zeevang site factsheet
Netherlands Reeuwijkse Plassen site factsheet
Netherlands Wadden Sea site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Netherlands Wormer-and Jisperveld site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Hammal Katchery Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon) site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Abyy lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Forty islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kolyma-Alazeya lowland site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lowland swamps in the valley of Tungur and Nenyuga rivers site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Big and Small Akh lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Big Indra lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dikoye and Epanchino lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tuy river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Istochnoye, Sredneye and Schuchiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kataiginskiye bogs site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kondo-Alymskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob' site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Seketovo, Rakhtovo and Artevo lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulgarski site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river site factsheet
Russia (European) Issinski site factsheet
Russia (European) Kuloy river site factsheet
Russia (European) Petrocrepost' Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Seskar island site factsheet
Russia (European) Surski reservoir site factsheet
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Santoña marshes site factsheet
Sri Lanka Giants Tank site factsheet
Sweden River Umeälven delta site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia site factsheet
Turkey Burdur Lake site factsheet
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Göksu Delta site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Lake site factsheet
Turkey Seyhan Delta site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
United Kingdom Breydon Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Lindisfarne site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Ouse Washes site factsheet
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries site factsheet
United Kingdom Somerset Levels and Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Influenza Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Mareca penelope. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 12,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species