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Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,020,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals U not applicable Not Applicable 0
Population trend Stable Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 6,000-18,000 breeding pairs, equating to 18,000-54,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004), but Europe forms <5% of the global range.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant       Yes
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Native Possibly Extinct Yes      
Bhutan Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Guam (to USA) Introduced Possibly Extinct Yes      
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant       Yes
Italy Native Extinct       Yes
Jordan Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Nepal Native Extant Yes      
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant       Yes
Portugal Reintroduced Extant       Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Possibly Extinct       Yes
Spain Native Extinct       Yes
Syria Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
USA Introduced Possibly Extinct Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Meghri site factsheet
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest site factsheet
Azerbaijan Korchai area site factsheet
Azerbaijan Shamkhor area site factsheet
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Atsas-Agios Theodoros Area site factsheet
Cyprus Cape Greco site factsheet
Cyprus Cha Potami River site factsheet
Cyprus Diarizos Valley site factsheet
Cyprus Ezousa Valley and Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Famagusta Lakes site factsheet
Cyprus Karpasia Peninsula - Kleides Islands site factsheet
Cyprus Kormakitis Peninsula site factsheet
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Oroklini Lake site factsheet
Cyprus Pafos Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Panagia Stazousa River site factsheet
Cyprus Paralimni Lake site factsheet
Cyprus Pentashoinos River site factsheet
Cyprus Saramas Valley site factsheet
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karkheh river marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mehrouyeh Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iraq Al Jadriyah and Umm Al Khanazeer island site factsheet
Iraq Anah and Rawa site factsheet
Iraq Baquba wetlands site factsheet
Iraq Hawizeh site factsheet
Iraq Samara Wetlands site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot site factsheet
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh site factsheet
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor) site factsheet
Palestinian Authority Territories Jericho site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons site factsheet
Syria Euphrates valley site factsheet
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz site factsheet
Syria Ras al-Ayn site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations Suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation Suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Francolinus francolinus. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1766)
Population size U mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,020,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment