A total of 163 bird species is believed to have become extinct since 1500. Avian extinctions are continuing, with 19 species lost in the last quarter of the twentieth century and three more known or suspected to have gone extinct since 2000. The rate of extinctions on continents appears to be increasing, principally as a result of extensive and expanding habitat destruction.
Extinctions have probably been better documented for birds than any other group of animals. In total, 145 bird species have been classified as extinct since 1500. This includes five species that have gone extinct in the wild, but that still have populations remaining in captivity. A number of other species currently categorised as Critically Endangered have probably gone extinct too, but cannot be designated as such until we are certain (Butchart et al. 2006). A total of 17 such species are categorised as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) and one as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild). Thus, a total of 163 bird species may have been lost in the last 500 years.
Extinctions are continuing: 19 species were lost in the last quarter of the 20th century, and three species are known or suspected to have gone extinct since 2000. The last known individual of Spix’s Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii (classified as Critically Endangered: Possibly Extinct in the Wild) disappeared in Brazil towards the end of 2000, the last two known individuals of Hawaiian Crow Corvus hawaiiensis (classified as Extinct in the Wild) disappeared in June 2002 and Po’ouli Melamprosops phaeosoma, also from the Hawaiian Islands, was listed as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) after the last known individual died in captivity in November 2004.
Although most bird species (>80%) live on continents (Johnson and Stattersfield 1990), the majority of extinctions (88%) have been on islands (Butchart et al. 2006). Often, these resulted from the introduction of invasive alien species such as cats, rats and goats, which either preyed upon the native species or degraded its habitat (BirdLife International 2008). However, continental species have been far from immune, and those going extinct often originally had extensive ranges. The wave of extinctions on islands may be slowing, perhaps because many of the potential introductions of alien species to predator-free islands have already occurred, driving the susceptible island species extinct, with conservation interventions successfully improving the status of some of the remainder. By contrast, the rate of extinctions on continents appears to be increasing as a result of extensive and expanding habitat destruction (see figure). If we continue to degrade and destroy vast areas of natural habitats then it will be difficult to prevent a much larger and more devastating extinction wave from washing over the continents.
Related Case Studies in other sections
Compiled 2004, updated 2008, 2011, 2014
BirdLife International (2014) We have lost over 150 bird species since 1500. Presented as part of the BirdLife State of the world's birds website. Available from: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/102. Checked: 26/07/2014