|Location||Philippines, Region IX|
|Central coordinates||120o 7.00' East 5o 15.00' North|
|Altitude||0 - 558m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2001|
Ornithological information Tawi-tawi is the most important island for the conservation of the threatened and restricted-range bird species of the Sulu archipelago Endemic Bird Area. All but one of these species has been recorded there, and Tawi-tawi retains more extensive forests than anywhere else in the EBA. It is the only place where Sulu Bleeding-heart has definitely been recorded, although there is remarkably little recent information on the status of this elusive species there, the only IBA with a population of Tawi-tawi Brown-dove, and the only IBA where Blue-winged Racquet-tail and Sulu Hornbill have recently been recorded. The relatively large population of Philippine Cockatoo on Tawi-tawi is also vital for the survival of this critically endangered species. The Sulu archipelago endemic Black-billed Hanging-parrot Loriculus (philippensis) bonapartei, which has recently been treated by some ornithologists as a full species, has its largest known population on Tawi-tawi. A reef between Tandubas and Sikubong that becomes very shallow at low tide appears to be important for herons and shorebirds.
Site description This IBA includes the island of Tawi-tawi (48,400 ha), the second largest in the Sulu archipelago, and many small associated islands including Tandungan, Tandubatu, Dundangan and Baliungan in the Tandubas group. Tawi-tawi is largely undeveloped, with some primary forest and large areas of secondary forest inland, as well as forested islets and rich reefs offshore, although much of the forest around the coastal fringe has been converted to coconut plantations. The largest remaining areas of forest on Tawi-tawi are on the central ridge, which rises to just over 500m, and in the eastern half of the island. Forest has been estimated to cover 250-350 km2 of the island in total, but recent observations (including from the air) suggest that most of it has been selectively logged and that little primary forest remains. There are also small remnants of closed-canopy forest close to Batu-Batu village, mostly on rocky outcrops or inaccessible areas, some logged forest extending across the island from Batu-Batu around Tarawaken, and in the Balimbing, Buan and Tataan areas. The eastern islands of Tandungan, Tandubatu, Dundangan and Baliungan are rather hilly and were until recently well forested, but the fringing mangroves have now mostly been cleared for firewood and large areas of forest inland have been logged. However, some areas of unlogged forest remain, at least on the higher parts of Baliungan. Some of the other small islands south of Tawi-tawi have areas of secondary forest or scrub, but many of them are extensively cultivated and none of them appear to have significant areas of primary forest. The main land-uses in this IBA are subsistence agriculture and the extraction of forest products. Tawi-tawi and its associated islands are of great scenic beauty, and have considerable potential for tourism, but this is not possible at present because of political instability.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Sulu Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba menagei||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Tawitawi Brown-dove Phapitreron cinereiceps||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Endangered|
|Grey Imperial-pigeon Ducula pickeringii||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Blue-winged Racquet-tail Prioniturus verticalis||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Rufous-lored Kingfisher Todiramphus winchelli||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Sulu Hornbill Anthracoceros montani||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Sulu Woodpecker Dendrocopos ramsayi||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Celestial Monarch Hypothymis coelestis||-||2001||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial landscapes (terrestrial)||-|
Other biodiversity A small mammal that is endemic to Tawi-tawi, Rattus tawitawiensis, is listed as vulnerable by IUCN. Dugong Dugong dugon are occasionally recorded on Tawi-tawi, and it is a nesting area for Green Sea Turtle Chelonia mydas, Hawkesbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata and Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea.
Management considerations Forest loss and modification is the greatest threat to the unique biodiversity of this IBA. Small-scale illegal logging operations continue to take place on Tawi-tawi and its associated islands, either for local private use or for shipping to Mindanao and the Visayas, apparently to supply the market on these islands. As a result, a high proportion of the remaining forest on the islands is secondary, and much of this is of poor quality. The logging of steep slopes has led to localised erosion of the topsoil. Some areas have been fully logged, cleared and planted to crops, including rice, corn, cassava and camote. The low-lying coralline islands off Tawi-tawi have mostly had their natural forest replaced by coconut trees or other forms of cultivation. Hunting pressure is heavy in this IBA, and the hunting and the collection the chicks of Sulu Hornbill for food is almost certainly threatening the survival of that species. Several species of parrots and other birds are captured for the cage bird trade, which is likely to be a significant threat to Philippine Cockatoo and possibly also Sulu Hornbill.
Protection status Not officially protected.
Conservation response Several conservation measures have been proposed for this IBA. The control of illegal logging in the rugged area bounded by Mt Bin Uang, Mt Sibankal, Lubbuk and Balimbang is an immediate priority. Other proposals are for surveys to determine the distribution of the habitats and biodiversity throughout Tawi-tawi province; conservation education to increase awareness amongst local people of the importance of the biodiversity in their province; the establishment of a protected area on Tawi-tawi; in-situ management of the most immediately threatened species; the development of ecotourism; and improved management of forestry. In 1997 Mindanao State University (Tawi-tawi) and the Haribon Foundation commenced collaboration on an awareness campaign focussed on the conservation of the terrestrial biodiversity of Tawi-tawi.
References Allen (1998a,b); Diesmos and Pedregosa (1995); Dutson et al. (1996); Lambert (1993).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2013) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Tawi-tawi Island. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2013
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