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Location Philippines, Region XII
Central coordinates 123o 15.00' East  7o 48.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 2,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 1,300m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Haribon Foundation

Site description Mt Timolan is c.20 km inland from Pagadian City, to the south of Mt Sugarloaf (PH109). It rises to just over 1,000 m. Lowland forest is reported to cover c.80% of the area and there are also areas of secondary grassland. There are numerous rivers and streams and freshwater lakes and pools that provide habitat for water birds, including Lake Timolan, which has been transformed into a marshy area. Arable land is present, and is planted with perennial crops and orchards. The forests serve as watershed for surrounding lowland communities and contains the headwaters of the Dinas and Labangan Rivers.

Key Biodiversity The avifauna of Mt Timolan is poorly known, although there are several recent records of Philippine Eagle and the forests there are probably an important part of the network of sites required for the conservation of that critically endangered species. The lowland forests which are reported to survive there may support populations of the threatened and restricted-range species of the Mindanao and Eastern Visayas Endemic Bird Area, including some that have been recorded on the lower slopes of nearby Mt Sugarloaf (PH109) and Mt Malindang (PH107).

Non-bird biodiversity: Other wildlife reported in the area includes Philippine Tarsier Tarsius syrichta, Philippine warty pig Sus philippensis, squirrels, probably Exilisciurus concinnus and Sundasciurus philippinensis, common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and monitor lizard Varanus salvator.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Mount Timolan Protected Landscape 1,909 protected area contained by site 1,909  
Mount Timolan Buffer Zone Protected Landscape/Seascape - Buffer Zone 742 protected area overlaps with site 165  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Forest   -

Protection status The Mt Timolan area was declared a provincial park and wildlife sanctuary in 1992 by the provincial government through Provincial Ordinance No. 3.

References Haribon Foundation (1998).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Mount Timolan Protected Landscape. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife