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Location Philippines, Region VI
Central coordinates 123o 8.00' East  10o 25.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 24,557 ha
Altitude 306 - 2,465m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Haribon Foundation

Site description Mt Kanla-on is the highest peak on Negros, and lies c.35 km south-east of Bacolod City. There are several volcanic craters and peaks in the Kanla-on range, the highest of them reaching 2,435 m. These mountains are included in the Mt Kanla-on National Park, and forest within the park is estimated to cover about 11,475 ha or 46.7% of its total area. Other habitats include open grassland and cultivated lands occupied by settlers. Most of the forest is montane, including mossy forest from about 1,700 m to the bare peaks of the active volcanoes or low shrubby vegetation and grassland of the inactive peaks. There are some areas of lowland forests at Guintubdan and Mambucal, and possibly elsewhere on the slopes. The forest along the valley of the Guintubdan trail starts at 1,050 m, and is then continuous up to the peak of the volcano. It descends somewhat lower on adjacent ridges, but is in poor condition at these altitudes. Ten years ago the forest boundary was around 800 m, where only fragments now remain. This indicates a fast rate of retreat and a great loss of important mid-altitude forest. At Mambucal, forest descends to about 750 m, lower in some precipitous valleys. A few forest species occur in parkland at Mambucal village at 400 m. On the gentler slopes it has been logged to around 950 m, above which forest is primary and extends to the summit. The logged forest is rather open, but many large trees remain, and the area supports a high diversity and density of forest birds. Sources of livelihood on Kanla-on include upland farming, orchid gathering, wood gathering, charcoal making and livestock raising. The park serves as the primary watershed for one fifth of the land area of the province, about 160,000 ha of valuable agricultural land where sugar and rice are the main products. It also has important recreational, educational, scientific and historical values.

Key Biodiversity Mt Kanla-on has been visited by many ornithologists in the past, and most of the threatened and restricted-range species of the Negros and Panay Endemic Bird Area have been recorded there. It still contains a large area of montane forest, and it is particularly notable as the only site where Negros Fruit-dove has ever been recorded, although there is no recent information on the status of this bird. Several of the other threatened species have been recorded there in the 1990s, including the Negros Bleeding-heart, Flame-templed Babbler, White-throated Jungle-flycatcher and Visayan Flowerpecker. However, most of these are primarily birds of lowland forest, and the continuing loss of the lower altitude forests from the slopes of Mt Kanla-on is steadily reducing the value of this site for their conservation, and the White-throated Jungle-flycatcher may already be locally extinct.

Non-bird biodiversity: The endangered Philippine Spotted Deer Cervus alfredi and Visayan Warty Pig Sus cebifrons have been recorded, and other threatened and endemic mammals probably occur.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Negros Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba keayi resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Negros Fruit-dove Ptilinopus arcanus resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Spotted Imperial-pigeon Ducula carola resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Rufous-lored Kingfisher Todiramphus winchelli resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Visayan Hornbill Penelopides panini resident  2001  present  A1  Endangered 
Rufous-headed Hornbill Rhabdotorrhinus waldeni resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
White-winged Cuckooshrike Coracina ostenta resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Negros Striped-babbler Stachyris nigrorum resident  2001  present  A1  Endangered 
Flame-templed Babbler Dasycrotapha speciosa resident  2001  present  A1  Endangered 
White-throated Jungle-flycatcher Rhinomyias albigularis resident  2001  present  A1  Endangered 
Visayan Flowerpecker Dicaeum haematostictum resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Canlaon Natural Park 24,680 protected area contains site 24,557  
Mount Kanlaon Natural Park 24,697 protected area contains site 24,557  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Forest   -

Protection status Mt Kanla-on National Park was declared by Proclamation No. 721 on 8 August 1934, and revised by Proclamation No. 1005 on 8 May 1997. This is a GEF-CPPAP site.

Further web sources of information 

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This site has been identified as an AZE due to it containing a Critically Endangered or Endangered species with a limited range.

References Brooks et al. (1992); Gatumbato (1997); Lambert (1993).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Mount Kanla-on Natural Park. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife