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Location Philippines, Region IV
Central coordinates 121o 29.00' East  14o 4.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 11,130 ha
Altitude 0 - 2,177m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Haribon Foundation

Site description Mt Banahaw is an active volcano that rises steeply to 2,177 m. The isolated twin peaks of Mt Banahaw and Mt San Cristobal straddle the border between the provinces of Laguna and Quezon. The most extensive stands of closed canopy forest in Laguna Province are on Mt Banahaw. The forest types include lowland dipterocarp forest on the lower slopes and montane forest above about 900 m, including mossy forest around the peak. On the lower slopes of the mountains there are coconut plantations intensively inter-cropped with fruit trees and areas of kaingin, and the surrounding area is intensively cultivated. The forests are a vital watershed for the surrounding lowlands. The accessibility of this IBA from the towns of Dolores, Sariaya, Tayabas and Lukban makes it as a popular destination for tourists, including mountaineers. It is considered as a centre by the religious denominations of southern Luzon, and is visited by pilgrims.

Key Biodiversity Several of the threatened and restricted-range birds of the Luzon Endemic Bird Area have been recorded in or near to this IBA. It is likely that the relatively extensive forests that remain in Mt Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park support important populations of some of these species.

Non-bird biodiversity: Endemic mammals have been recorded in this IBA, including the Philippine Pygmy Fruit Bat Haplonycteris fischeri , Luzon Pygmy Fruit Bat Otopteropus cartilagonodus, Small Luzon Forest Mouse Apomys microdon and the Philippine Warty Pig Sus philippensis. Mt Banahao is the type locality of two endemic herpetofauna, Steere’s Sphenomorphus Sphenomorphus steerei and Mountain Forest Frog Platymantis montanus. Other endemic amphibians in the area include Banahao Forest Frog Platymantis banahao, Diminutive Forest Frog Platymantis mimulus, Naomi’s Forest Frog Platymantis naomii, Common Forest Tree Frog Philautus surdus and four Platymantis species that have yet to be described. The IBA also supports a number of unique species of palms, ferns, and flowering plants such as Aglaia banahaensis.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 
Flame-breasted Fruit-dove Ramphiculus marchei resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Philippine Eagle-owl Bubo philippensis resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Ashy Thrush Zoothera cinerea resident  2001  present  A1  Vulnerable 
Philippine Cockatoo Cacatua haematuropygia resident  2001  present  A1  Critically Endangered 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Mounts Banahaw - San Cristobal National Park 11,325 protected area contains site 11,130  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   -
Forest   -

Protection status Mt Banahaw- San Cristobal National Park was declared a National Park by Proc. No 716 on 21 May 1941 and Proc No. 75 on 9 August 1966. It is proposed as a protected landscape under the NIPAS.

References References: Alcala and Brown (1998); Dans and Gonzalez (1995); Davis et al. (1995); Diesmos (1999); Mallari and Diesmos (in press).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Mounts Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016

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