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Location Saudi Arabia, 'Asir,Makkah
Central coordinates 41o 25.50' East  18o 45.10' North
IBA criteria A3, B2, B3
Area 250,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 250m
Year of IBA assessment 1994

Saudi Wildlife Commission (Affiliate)

Site description A diverse section of the hot, humid coastal Tihamah centred on Kiyad and including the Makhshush sabkhah/outwash fan and Wadi Hali and Wadi Qarnayn with their permanent pools, as well as adjacent lava fields, wooded savanna and rocky foothills. Sandy coastal areas support Salvadora bushes but more inland vegetation is dominated by Acacia tortilis, A. ehrenbergiana and A. asak trees. Sparse shrubs and herbs include Dipterygium, Heliotropium, Indigofera, Malva and Euphorbia. The whole area is very heavily grazed by domestic stock, but rains can produce a good cover of grasses Pennisetum and Panicum. There is considerable cultivation, mainly of sorghum and millet, and charcoal production is practised in the foothills.

Key Biodiversity See box for key species. The area has not been well studied in summer, but other known or presumed breeding species include Scopus umbretta, Melierax metabates, Aquila verreauxii, Pterocles exustus, Coracias abyssinica and Tockus nasutus, and other species regularly present all year or in winter and which may breed include Pelecanus rufescens, Terathopius ecaudatus and Circaetus gallicus.

Non-bird biodiversity: Mammals: Caracal caracal (rare), Canis lupus (V) and Gazella gazella cora (V; at Makhshush).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Arabian Partridge Alectoris melanocephala resident  1993  present  B3  Least Concern 
Sand Partridge Ammoperdix heyi resident  1993  abundant  B3  Least Concern 
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca winter  1993  2 individuals  good  B2  Vulnerable 
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus resident  1993  uncommon  B2  Endangered 
Arabian Bustard Ardeotis arabs non-breeding  1990  5 individuals  good  B2  Near Threatened 
African Collared-dove Streptopelia roseogrisea resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Hypocolius Hypocolius ampelinus winter  1993  30 individuals  good  B3  Least Concern 
Arabian Warbler Sylvia leucomelaena resident  1993  present  B3  Least Concern 
Black Scrub-robin Cercotrichas podobe resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nile Valley Sunbird Anthreptes metallicus resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Arabian Golden Sparrow Passer euchlorus resident  1993  common  A3, B3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2013 very high not assessed negligible

Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Not assessed  negligible 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   major
Savanna   major
Shrubland   minor
Wetlands (inland)   minor
Coastline   minor

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture major
other minor
Notes: charcoal production
rangeland/pastureland major
forestry minor

Acknowledgements Data-sheet compiled by M. Shobrak.

References Rahmani and Shobrak (1992a,b), Shobrak and Rahmani (1991, 1993).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Al-Habrow al-Arabi. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016

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