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Location Saudi Arabia, Makkah
Central coordinates 41o 11.76' East  20o 30.48' North
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3, B2, B3
Area 42,000 ha
Altitude 1,600 - 2,604m
Year of IBA assessment 1994

Saudi Wildlife Commission (Affiliate)

Site description The site lies 80 km north of al-Baha and 150 km south-east of Taif, between the Bani Saad-al-Baha escarpment road and the Taif-al-Baha road. Jabal Ibrahim (Jabal Batharah, 5,000 ha, up to 2,604 m) is a granite mountain rising c.1,000 m above the surrounding rocky hills and giving rise to several streams which provide a permanent flow for Wadi Turabah and its tributaries (west end 20°27'N 41°05'E, east end 20°37'N 41°18'E). Habitats include: bare granite domes and slabs; well-vegetated granite boulder slopes with montane woodland, including Juniperus; wadis with abundant Ficus and Ziziphus trees; and Acacia woodland.

Key Biodiversity See box for key species. The site's location and interesting mix of habitats provide an avifauna with Afrotropical elements as well as most of the south-west Arabian endemics, and breeding birds thus include Scopus umbretta (c.30 birds present), Aquila verreauxii, Halcyon leucocephala, Monticola rufocinereus, Phylloscopus umbrovirens and Emberiza tahapisi. Up to 20 Ciconia nigra overwinter.

Non-bird biodiversity: Mammals: Papio hamadryas (endemic) and several (heavily persecuted) large carnivores. Fish: Cyprinion mahalensis, Garra buettikeri and Barbus apoensis (all endemic). Flora: Jabal Ibrahim is of high botanical interest.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Philby's Partridge Alectoris philbyi resident  1993  common  A2, A3, B3  Least Concern 
Arabian Partridge Alectoris melanocephala resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus resident  1993  present  B2  Least Concern 
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus resident  1993  4 breeding pairs  good  B2  Endangered 
Caprimulgus poliocephalus resident  1993  5 breeding pairs  good  A3, B2  Not Recognised 
Arabian Woodpecker Dendropicos dorae resident  1993  5-10 breeding pairs  good  A1, A3, B2  Vulnerable 
Brown Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Arabian Warbler Sylvia leucomelaena resident  1993  present  B3  Least Concern 
Tristram's Starling Onychognathus tristramii resident  1993  common  A3  Least Concern 
Yemen Thrush Turdus menachensis resident  1993  present  A1, A2, A3, B2  Vulnerable 
Arabian Wheatear Oenanthe lugentoides resident  1993  common  A3  Least Concern 
Little Rock-thrush Monticola rufocinereus resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Arabian Waxbill Estrilda rufibarba resident  1993  present  A2, A3, B3  Least Concern 
Olive-rumped Serin Serinus rothschildi resident  1993  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yemen Serin Serinus menachensis non-breeding  1993  uncommon  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Yemen Linnet Carduelis yemenensis resident  1993  present  A2, A3, B3  Least Concern 
Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea passage  1993  present  A1, B2  Near Threatened 

IBA Monitoring

2013 low not assessed negligible

Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Little/none of site covered (<10%)  No management planning has taken place  Not assessed  negligible 


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest   minor
Rocky areas   minor
Shrubland   major
Wetlands (inland)   minor
Savanna   minor

Acknowledgements Data-sheet compiled by Dr Stephen F. Newton.

References Eichacker (1990), Newton and Newton (1993), Schulz et al. (undated).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016

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