|Location||Saudi Arabia, Ash Sharqiyah|
|Central coordinates||50o 29.30' East 25o 24.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3|
|Altitude||0 - 10m|
|Year of IBA assessment||1994|
Site description The western sector of a shallow, enclosed bay between Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Qatar, from al-'Uqair south to Salwah on the border with Qatar (c.100 km of coastline). It is bordered by a generally well-vegetated sandy coast where the high level of groundwater allows the growth of date palms and reedbeds at the edge of the sea, with reeds Phragmites often extending into the seawater. The area contains large sabkhahs and elevated peninsulas surrounded by shallow, hypersaline lagoons, and the intertidal zone consists largely of flats of sand and sand-rock. Marine substrates are sand and rock supporting extensive seagrass beds. Elevated parts have been isolated by the present water level, forming islands close to the coast (e.g. Zakhnuniyah, Samamik, Judhaym). These are often muddier than the mainland, support a good growth of salt-tolerant vegetation, and seabird colonies are found on sandier parts. Unaybir, a small island at the southern tip of the gulf, consists of elevated fossil coral rock. Small-scale traditional fishing occurs, with a small fishing settlement on Zakhnuniyah. The mainland supports major rock quarrying operations and is used for camel grazing. The ruins of al-'Uqair are of considerable historical value.
Key Biodiversity See box for key species. The gulf holds the main breeding sites in Saudi Arabia of Phalacrocorax nigrogularis (see box). There are important breeding numbers of three species of tern (see box), as well as the only known breeding Sterna caspia on the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast (3-5 pairs). There are many wintering Larus ichthyaetus (189 in January 1993) and L. cachinnans/L. argentatus, largely associated with breeding colonies of P. nigrogularis. Other winter counts include 1,260 Larus genei.
Non-bird biodiversity: Mammals: Dugong dugon (V; globally important population).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus||winter||1992||1,086 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis||winter||1992||2,378 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Egretta gularis||resident||1992||100 breeding pairs||good||B1i||Not Recognised|
|Egretta gularis||winter||1992||130-486 individuals||good||B1i||Not Recognised|
|Socotra Cormorant Phalacrocorax nigrogularis||breeding||1992||11,000 breeding pairs||good||A1, A4i, B1i, B2||Vulnerable|
|Larus cachinnans||winter||1992||560-2,500 individuals||good||B1i||Not Recognised|
|Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis||breeding||1992||2,000 breeding pairs||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa||breeding||1992||2,000 breeding pairs||good||A4i, B1i, B3||Least Concern|
|Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus||breeding||1992||1,000 breeding pairs||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|A4iii Species group - seabirds||breeding||1993||16,100 breeding pairs||good||A4iii|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Little/none of site covered (<10%)||No management planning has taken place||Not assessed||negligible|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Chicks from the Phalacrocorax nigrogularis colonies are occasionally harvested by people from the Hofuf and Dammam areas.|
Acknowledgements Data-sheet compiled by P. Symens, A. Suhaibani and M. Werner.
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Gulf of Salwah. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/09/2016
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