|Location||Iran, Islamic Republic of, Sistan and Baluchestan|
|Central coordinates||61o 45.00' East 31o 20.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3|
|Year of IBA assessment||1994|
Site description The Hamoun-i Puzak is a freshwater lake of c.35,000 ha, with extensive reedbeds, in the Sistan basin. Most of the lake lies in Afghanistan, but c.10,000 ha in the south-west is within Iran. The entire lake is very shallow, probably not exceeding 1 m deep. The Iranian portion consists of a complex of open-water areas with rich submerged vegetation (principally Ceratophyllum) and extensive Typha and Phragmites. The Hamoun-i Puzak receives most of its water from the Parian branch of the Hirmand river which enters the lake in the north and east. The Puzak is the first of the three hamouns to fill during wet periods and probably never dries out completely, even in the severest droughts. In early 1992, following a series of wet years, the wetlands were in excellent condition, with clear water, rich submerged vegetation and extensive reedbeds. The site includes the marshes around Takht-e Edalat (formerly Takht-e Shah) and Mahmoodi. Vast beds of Phragmites cover much of the Hamoun-i Puzak, and there is relatively little open water. On the Iranian side of the border, Typha now dominates, having replaced Phragmites since the 1970s, apparently as a result of heavy grazing. The wetland is fringed with Tamarix thickets and the adjacent land is degraded steppe and irrigated cultivation. There are several small villages on the edge of the marsh, and, though primarily dependent on livestock breeding, the local people are increasingly taking advantage of the lake's rich fishery. Reeds are cut and used locally as forage for livestock, for constructing boats, for fabricating wind-breaks and as fuel.
Key Biodiversity See boxes for key species. An important wintering area for ducks and Fulica atra and a staging area for a wide variety of species, including many shorebirds. In wet years, the wetlands may also be important for breeding waterfowl. Circus aeruginosus is present all year, with up to 45 in winter.
Non-bird biodiversity: None known to BirdLife International.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Greylag Goose Anser anser||winter||1970-1977||2,450 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Gadwall Mareca strepera||winter||1970-1977||4,500 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope||winter||1970-1977||2,500 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Mallard Anas platyrhynchos||winter||1970-1977||12,100 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata||winter||1970-1977||18,100 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Common Teal Anas crecca||winter||1970-1977||58,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Common Pochard Aythya ferina||winter||1970-1977||8,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Vulnerable|
|Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca||winter||1970-1977||30 individuals||good||B1i||Near Threatened|
|White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala||winter||1970||42 individuals||good||A1, B2||Endangered|
|Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris||breeding||1973||3 breeding pairs||good||B2||Least Concern|
|Great White Egret Ardea alba||winter||1970-1977||1,200 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus||winter||1977-1992||75-82 individuals||good||A1, A4i, B1i||Vulnerable|
|Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca||winter||1977||5 individuals||good||B2||Vulnerable|
|White-tailed Sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla||winter||1977||7 individuals||good||A1||Least Concern|
|Common Coot Fulica atra||winter||1970-1977||37,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Common Crane Grus grus||winter||1970-1977||450 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Himantopus himantopus||passage||1977||650 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Not Recognised|
|Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta||winter||1977||130 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa||winter||1970-1977||5,500 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Near Threatened|
|Dead Sea Sparrow Passer moabiticus||resident||1977||uncommon||-||B3||Least Concern|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||winter||1970-1977||100,000-499,999 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|1994||very high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Climate change and severe weather||drought||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||very high|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Hamun-e-Puzak, south end||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||10,000||protected area contained by site||10,000|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||minor|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||67%|
Acknowledgements Data-sheet compiled by Dr D. A. Scott, reviewed by Dept of Environment.
References Carp (1980), Petocz et al. (1976), Ramsar Convention Bureau (1993), Scott (1975a, 1976a,c, 1978b, 1980, 1991, in press), Summers et al. (1987).
Contribute Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.
Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/09/2016
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife