|Location||Iran, Islamic Republic of, Gilan|
|Central coordinates||49o 28.00' East 37o 25.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2|
|Year of IBA assessment||1994|
Site description The Anzali Mordab lies in the western part of the broad deltaic plains around the city of Rasht in the south-west Caspian region; the town of Bandar Anzali is situated at the mouth of the main Mordab lagoon. The site, which includes Siahkesheem Marsh (37°24'N 49°22'E, 6,700 ha), comprises a large, shallow, eutrophic, freshwater lagoon, fed by several rivers rising in the Alborz Mountains to the south, and separated from the Caspian Sea by a sandy barrier, c.1 km wide, with open grassland, Punica scrub and sand-dune vegetation. Mid-way along its length the lagoon empties into the Caspian through a narrow channel straddled by the busy fishing port of Anzali Mordab. Much of the centre and east of the Mordab supports vast stands of Phragmites (up to 6 m high) while the western part is mainly open water. The partially enclosed basin of the Rud-e-Esfand (Siahkesheem Marsh) in the south-west is almost entirely overgrown with dense reedbeds. The permanent wetland area is surrounded by a broad belt of flood meadows and ab-bandans (shallow impoundments which retain water for summer use in irrigation). These largely seasonal wetlands are bordered by arable land to west, south and east. Selke Ab-bandan (37°24'N 49°29'E, 360 ha) is situated on the southern edge of the main Mordab, and comprises 360 ha of shallow freshwater marsh and flood meadows with tall reedbeds to the north and arable land to the south. The wetland is surrounded by a low embankment and was originally created as a water storage pond and duck-hunting area. Other similar shallow marshes along the southern edge of the Mordab and around its eastern end continue to be maintained as private duck-hunting reserves. Open-water areas support extensive beds of the water lily Nelumbium maciferum and a very rich growth of other floating and submerged vegetation including Lemna, Potamogeton, Hydrilla, Myriophyllum and Ceratophyllum. The marshes and flood meadows to the south support similar vegetation with the addition of Trapa natans, Juncus and Carex. The Mordab is a very important spawning and nursery area for economically important species in the Caspian Sea fishery and also supports a major local fishery. Duck-hunting is an important activity in winter, including both sport hunting and market hunting for sale in local markets and export to Tehran. Many of the ab-bandans surrounding the Mordab are managed as duck-hunting areas in winter. The duck hunters employ a traditional dazzling and hand-netting technique. Elsewhere in the Mordab, hunting is by shotgun. The protected areas are in the public domain.
Key Biodiversity See box for key species. The Anzali Mordab and its satellite wetlands such as Siahkesheem Marsh and Selke Ab-bandan are extremely important for a wide variety of breeding, passage and wintering waterfowl. The wetlands support a very large breeding colony of Chlidonias hybridus, small colonies of six species of herons and egrets, up to 25 pairs of Circus aeruginosus and (at least formerly -- see below) a large resident population of Porphyrio porphyrio. They also support huge wintering concentrations of ducks, geese, swans and coots. The wetland is the most important wintering area in Iran for Phalacrocorax pygmeus (see box), and one of the most important sites for wintering Haliaeetus albicilla. At least 144 species have been recorded in Siahkesheem Protected Area and at least 157 species in Selke Wildlife Refuge, including Jynx torquilla (fairly common passage migrant).
Due to great hunting pressure the number of waterfowl wintering in Anzali Mordab in recent years has been much lower than in the 1970s, when the total count of ducks and Fulica atra usually exceeded 200,000. The great majority of waterfowl are now confined to the well protected Selke Wildlife Refuge, Siahkesheem Marsh and a chain of private duck-netting marshes along the south side of the Mordab.
Selke Wildlife Refuge continues to support large numbers of birds, but there is evidence of a change in species composition, with more diving ducks and F. atra and fewer dabbling ducks and geese than in the 1970s. This is undoubtedly a result of the higher water levels in the Refuge caused by the rise in level of the Caspian Sea.
There has been a dramatic decline in the population of P. porphyrio at Anzali Mordab in recent years. The reasons for this decline are unknown, as the extent of suitable habitat appears to have increased enormously during the last decade, but may be related to the great increase in water depth and/or spread of Azolla.
Non-bird biodiversity: Mammals: Canis lupus (V) has been recorded during severe winters.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Northern Pintail Anas acuta||winter||1970-1977||55,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus||winter||1977||32 individuals||good||A1||Vulnerable|
|Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons||winter||1970-1977||500 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Greylag Goose Anser anser||winter||1977||1,500 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Mute Swan Cygnus olor||winter||1977-1992||2,200-2,530 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus||winter||1977-1992||711-849 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus||winter||1977-1992||16-51 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Gadwall Mareca strepera||winter||1977-1992||7,850-14,900 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope||winter||1970-1977||30,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Mallard Anas platyrhynchos||winter||1970-1977||67,800 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata||winter||1970-1977||24,300 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Garganey Spatula querquedula||passage||1977||3,850 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Common Teal Anas crecca||winter||1970-1977||540,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Common Pochard Aythya ferina||winter||1970-1977||65,000 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Vulnerable|
|Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca||passage||1977||130 individuals||good||A1, B1i, B2||Near Threatened|
|Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca||winter||1970-1977||51 individuals||good||B1i||Near Threatened|
|Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula||winter||1970-1977||34,500 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Smew Mergellus albellus||winter||1970-1977||382 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala||passage||1977||25 individuals||good||A1||Endangered|
|Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus||winter||1970-1977||260 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis||winter||1970-1977||300 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis||passage||1977||620 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax||winter||1970-1977||250 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides||breeding||1977||150 breeding pairs||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides||passage||1977||900 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Egretta garzetta||breeding||1977||150 breeding pairs||good||B1i||Not Recognised|
|Egretta garzetta||passage||1977||585 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Not Recognised|
|Egretta garzetta||winter||1970-1977||300 individuals||good||B1i||Not Recognised|
|Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus||winter||1977-1992||410-650 individuals||good||A1, B1i, B2||Least Concern|
|Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo||passage||1977||4,200 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga||winter||1977||24 individuals||good||A1, B2||Vulnerable|
|Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca||winter||1977||6 individuals||good||B2||Vulnerable|
|White-tailed Sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla||winter||1977||20 individuals||good||A1, B2||Least Concern|
|Common Coot Fulica atra||winter||1970-1977||106,400 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Sociable Lapwing Vanellus gregarius||passage||1968-1969||1-8 individuals||poor||A1, A4i||Critically Endangered|
|Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus||winter||1977-1992||2,710-5,630 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Near Threatened|
|Common Redshank Tringa totanus||winter||1977||700 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa||winter||1970-1977||1,380 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Near Threatened|
|Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus||passage||1977||112 individuals||good||B1i||Least Concern|
|Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus||winter||1977-1992||1,000-2,510 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus||winter||1970-1977||1,750 individuals||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida||breeding||1977||2,000-4,000 breeding pairs||good||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||winter||1970-1977||500,000-999,999 individuals||unknown||A4iii|
|1994||very high||not assessed||not assessed|
|Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||very high|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Anzali Mordab (Talab) complex||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||15,000||is identical to site||15,000|
|Selkeh||Wildlife Refuge||238||protected area contained by site||238|
|Siahkeshim||Protected Area||4,115||protected area contained by site||4,500|
|Sorkhanhol||Wildlife Refuge||4,477||protected area contained by site||1,214|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Artificial - terrestrial||minor|
|Artificial - aquatic||minor|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||100%|
Acknowledgements Data-sheet compiled by Dr D. A. Scott, reviewed by Dept of Environment.
References Carp (1980), Ferguson (1972), Firouz et al. (1970), Fotoohi (1974), Howell (1976), IUCN (1991), Nielsen (1969), Nielsen and Speyer (1967), Ramsar Convention Bureau (1993), Scott (1976a,b,c, 1978a, in press), Summers et al. (1987).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Anzali Mordab complex. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2016
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