|Central coordinates||67o 55.00' East 32o 30.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, A4iii|
|Year of IBA assessment||1994|
Site description A large, very shallow, alkaline lake situated on a gently rolling plateau at the foot of the Kohe Baba and Kohe Paghman ranges in south-east Afghanistan, c.130 km south of Ghazni, at 2,100 m. The following description is based on observations in the 1970s. The lake's size varied considerably from year to year, being recharged mainly by snow-melt water flow once per year in spring, when it was most extensive (usually c.16 km at the widest point, and up to c.13,000 ha). Summers are very hot and winters very cold: the lake shrank through evaporation during the summer, in some years becoming completely dry by October, but in other years water lasted through the winter, although often freezing apart from a few tiny pools. Extensive mudflats surrounded the lake, extending for 7 km on the east side but only 0.5 km on the west; normally three islands were visible. The lake was fed by a river entering in the north-east and formed by a confluence of the Gardez, Ghazni and Nahara rivers. Extensive semi-desert steppe surrounded the lake and mudflats; characteristic shrubs were Amygdalus, Cousinia, Artemisia and Tamarix. Carex predominated in a small marsh at the river mouth in the north-east corner, but otherwise there was little plant life in the lake proper or on the mudflats, apart from Ruppia. There were no fish in the lake. There were 2,500 people in 15 villages within 10 km of the lake area, concentrated 8 km to the north-east, as well as c.200-300 semi-nomadic people living in the area, with traditional grazing rights for their livestock on the plains. Following a survey in November 1993, the following changes are apparent. Average water levels are higher than in past years, and the water is fresher, due apparently to much water being released from the Band-i-Sardeh dam upstream by local Mujahideen commanders. Fish now occur in the lake. Most villagers left as refugees during the war, but the semi-nomadic people remained. The site is important archaeologically, having several early dwelling mounds and accompanying artefacts. Roads to the area are usually not passable in winter.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Greylag Goose Anser anser||winter||1971||1,457 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Common Pochard Aythya ferina||passage||1969-1970||15,000 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus||breeding||1969-1974||5,700-9,000 individuals||good||A4i||Least Concern|
|Grey Heron Ardea cinerea||winter||1971||263 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus||winter||1971||1,260 individuals||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|Siberian Crane Leucogeranus leucogeranus||passage||1970-1977||56-76 individuals||good||A1, A4i||Critically Endangered|
|Himantopus himantopus||passage||1966-1970||2,500-9,999 individuals||poor||A4i||Not Recognised|
|Charadrius alexandrinus||breeding||1965-1966||400-800 breeding pairs||poor||A4i||Not Recognised|
|Sterna nilotica||passage||1969-1970||580 individuals||medium||A4i||Not Recognised|
|Slender-billed Gull Larus genei||breeding||1965-1972||1,000-2,499 adults only||medium||A4i||Least Concern|
|A4iii Species group - waterbirds||passage||1969-1970||18,843-35,552 individuals||medium||A4iii|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Ab-i-Estada||Waterfowl Sanctuary||27,000||protected area contained by site||27,000|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Desert||Desert & semi-desert - clay; Desert & semi-desert - salty||major|
|Grassland||Alpine, subalpine & boreal||major|
|Wetlands (inland)||Rivers & streams; Standing brackish & salt water; Water-fringe vegetation||10%|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Agric/cultiv/Rangeland: Primarily rangeland|
|nature conservation and research||100%|
Other biodiversity None known to BirdLife International.
Acknowledgements A total of 16 IBAs have been identified in Afghanistan. Responsibility for maintenance and update of the IBA information in WBDB is held by BirdLife Secretariat. The baseline survey of IBAs took place during 1991-1993 and was published in Evans (1994). The site accounts and introduction were compiled from information supplied by S. C. Madge, who acknowledges the impressive series of detailed reports compiled principally by Dr R. G. Petocz and Dr J. A. Sayer, team leaders of the National Parks and Wildlife Management Project, which was initiated at the request of the Government of Afghanistan and administered by the Food and Agriculture Organization under the United Nations Development Programme, and which ran from 1972 to 1980, although most ornithological data were collected in the latter years. Waterfowl counts are based mostly on data collected for the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau, chiefly by F. J. Koning, during brief winter and early spring visits in 1970–1972. A. Jamil carried out a survey of Ab-i-Istada for this project, with invaluable assistance from A. Fitzherbert and J. Harris (International Crane Foundation). E. Smith supplied valuable information for the site accounts, and Dr K. Habibi reviewed the first draft of the inventory.
References Carp (1980), Jamil (1994), Petocz and Habibi (1975), Shank and Rodenburg (1977).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Ab-i-Istada. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014
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