|Central coordinates||73o 0.00' East 37o 10.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A3|
|Altitude||3,250 - 6,103m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2008|
Ornithological information The precise status and the sizes of populations present are not known. At least 117 species have been recorded from the Afghan Pamir (which has a Tibetan-type avifauna); 75 of these are recorded from the Pamir-i-Buzurg, and probable breeding species among them include Buteo rufinus, Aquila chrysaetos, Gyps himalayensis (possibly, though recorded as G. fulvus), Tetraogallus himalayensis, Bubo bubo, Eremophila alpestris, Motacilla citreola, Prunella himalayana, P. fulvescens, Phoenicurus erythrogaster, Tichodroma muraria, Cinclus cinclus, C. pallasii (possible), Montifringilla nivalis, Carpodacus rubicilla, Leucosticte brandti and L. nemoricola.
Site description Spectacular, rugged, barren mountains in the north-east extremity of Afghanistan (the northern side of the Wakhan Corridor) between 3,250 and 6,103 m, with glaciers, glacial lakes and scree slopes. The reserve encompasses a glaciated block of the high Pamirs, within which the valleys of Sargaz, Tulibai, Manjulak and Abakhan drain into the Pamir river to the north (which forms the border with Tajikistan). To the south lies the wide valley of the Wakhan river. A small icefield with associated glaciers is found above 4,600 m. Vegetation is sparse: damp, lower valley bottoms consist of alluvial deposits with overlying peat on which Salix thickets grow; flatter areas by glacial lakes up to 5,000 m support extensive and luxuriant boggy meadows dominated by Carex and Kobresia, growing in hummocks on peaty deposits, whilst dry slopes support a sparse alpine-steppe vegetation up to 4,600 m, and above 4,300 m an alpine-heath zone also occurs. In the 1970s an estimated 75 families used to encamp in the reserve area with c.3,500-4,500 sheep and goats and c.900 yaks and cows during the short summer for grazing.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Himalayan Snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis||resident||2007||frequent [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Saker Falcon Falco cherrug||passage||1971-1976||unknown [units unknown]||-||A1||Endangered|
|Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus||passage||2007||3-5 individuals||poor||A1||Endangered|
|Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis||resident||2007||6-10 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota||resident||2007||10 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Hume's Lark Calandrella acutirostris||breeding||2007||300 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|White-winged Redstart Phoenicurus erythrogastrus||resident||2007||246 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|White-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Rufous-streaked Accentor Prunella himalayana||resident||2007||18 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|Brown Accentor Prunella fulvescens||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta||breeding||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Plain Mountain-finch Leucosticte nemoricola||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Black-headed Mountain-finch Leucosticte brandti||resident||2007||550 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|Crimson-winged Finch Rhodopechys sanguineus||resident||2007||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Not Recognised|
|Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla||resident||2007||1 individuals||poor||A3||Least Concern|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Pamir-i-Buzurg||Wildlife Reserve||67,938||is identical to site||67,938|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||100%|
Other biodiversity Mammals: Lynx lynx (rare), Uncia uncia (E), Ursus arctos (rare), Canis lupus (V), Capra ibex sibericus (685 in 1972) and Ovis ammon poli (rare: 750 in the reserve area in the 1970s, out of 2,000+ in the Afghan Pamirs).
Management considerations Designated as a reserve on account of its population of the endangered sheep Ovis ammon poli, and gazetted as a Wildlife Sanctuary in September 1978. Current on-the-ground protection is presumed to be non-existent. In the 1970s there appeared to be no threats to birdlife due to the remoteness of the area and the low human population density. The reserve area does not extend to cover the Anser indicus breeding colonies at Zor Kol (see site 004), leaving these highly sensitive sites vulnerable and without any protection. Hunting tours were allowed in the 1970s and uncontrolled hunting of wild ungulates may have occurred in recent years. The remoteness of the region prevents mass tourism but there is potential for trekking tours to develop in the future. The site was recommended for designation as a National Park and natural World Heritage Site in the 1970s (Petocz 1978, Sayer and von der Zon 1981).
Acknowledgements A total of 16 IBAs have been identified in Afghanistan. Responsibility for maintenance and update of the IBA information in WBDB is held by BirdLife Secretariat. The baseline survey of IBAs took place during 1991-1993 and was published in Evans (1994). The site accounts and introduction were compiled from information supplied by S. C. Madge, who acknowledges the impressive series of detailed reports compiled principally by Dr R. G. Petocz and Dr J. A. Sayer, team leaders of the National Parks and Wildlife Management Project, which was initiated at the request of the Government of Afghanistan and administered by the Food and Agriculture Organization under the United Nations Development Programme, and which ran from 1972 to 1980, although most ornithological data were collected in the latter years. Waterfowl counts are based mostly on data collected for the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau, chiefly by F. J. Koning, during brief winter and early spring visits in 1970–1972. A. Jamil carried out a survey of Ab-i-Istada for this project, with invaluable assistance from A. Fitzherbert and J. Harris (International Crane Foundation). E. Smith supplied valuable information for the site accounts, and Dr K. Habibi reviewed the first draft of the inventory.
References Nogge (1973), Petocz (1978), Sayer and van der Zon (1981).
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