|Central coordinates||27o 57.00' East 40o 11.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3|
|Year of IBA assessment||2004|
Ornithological information This is an important site for breeding and wintering waterbirds; migrating Pelecanus onocrotalus often roost at the lake.
Site description A shallow nutrient-rich freshwater lake (average depth 3 m) fed by groundwater and four streams. Small deltas have formed where the latter enter the lake, comprising extensive marshes and tree-lined riverbanks. Narrow belts of reed Phragmites fringe much of the lake. Water is abstracted for factory use and for irrigation. Cattle- and sheep-grazing is common along the lake shores.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala||winter||1996||20-34 individuals||-||A1||Endangered|
|Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia||breeding||1995||200 breeding pairs||-||A4i, B1i, B2||Least Concern|
|Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax||breeding||-||1,500 breeding pairs||-||A4i, B1i, B2||Least Concern|
|Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides||breeding||-||100 breeding pairs||-||B2||Least Concern|
|Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus||passage||-||1,500-5,000 individuals||-||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus||winter||1996||52-117 individuals||-||A1, A4i, B1i||Vulnerable|
|Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus||breeding||-||35-40 breeding pairs||-||A1, A4i, B1i, B2||Vulnerable|
|Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus||breeding||-||150 breeding pairs||-||A1, B1i, B3||Least Concern|
|Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus||winter||-||58-315 individuals||-||A1||Least Concern|
|Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo||breeding||-||2,650-3,000 breeding pairs||-||A4i, B1i||Least Concern|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Kuscenneti||National Park||64||protected area contained by site||17,058|
|Kusgolu||SIT (Law on Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets No. 2863)||100||protected area contained by site||100|
|Lake Kus (Manyas)||Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)||20,400||protected area overlaps with site||16,000|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Forest||Alluvial and very wet forest||5%|
|Wetlands (inland)||Standing freshwater; Water fringe vegetation||95%|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
Management considerations Artificially high water-levels have resulted in the loss of feeding marshes. Nesting trees in the National Park have also begun to die as a result of prolonged inundation. Agricultural, industrial and household pollution enters the lake in large quantities. Due to over-fishing, disease, pollution and possibly the effects of the changing water regime, fish catches have declined drastically. Fish migration into the lake is now impossible following the construction of a regulator.
Protection status National High International High64 ha of IBA covered by National Park (Ku° Gölü, 64 ha). 16,000 ha of IBA covered by Permanent Wildlife Reserve (Ku° Gölü, 23,667 ha). 100 ha of IBA covered by SÝT (Kuþ Gölü, 100 ha). 16,000 ha of IBA covered by Ramsar Site (Ku° Gölü, 16,000 ha).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2013) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kuş Lake / Manyas Lake. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/05/2013
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