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Location Turkey, Icel
Central coordinates 33o 59.00' East  36o 18.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii, A4iv, B1i, B1iv, B2
Area 21,610 ha
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Doga Dernegi (Partner Designate)

Site description The majority of the delta is used intensively by man and comprises agricultural land, settlements, wetlands, sand-dunes and beaches. Akgöl lake is a permanent nutrient-rich freshwater lake supporting rich marsh vegetation (including extensive Potamogeton, Scirpus, Typha and Phragmites beds). Saltmarsh surrounds the major lakes; the dunes are of particular conservation interest due to their intact and dynamic nature.

Key Biodiversity The site is of major importance for a range of breeding waterbirds, including the largest numbers of Marmaronetta angustirostris known in Turkey. It is also important for wintering raptors and waterbirds, and as a stop-over site for large numbers of Pelecanus onocrotalus and Ciconia ciconia. Species of global conservation concern that do not meet IBA criteria: Haliaeetus albicilla (wintering) and Larus audouinii. 332 bird species have been recorded, 90 are thought to breed.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Greylag Goose Anser anser winter  1995  680-1,450 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope winter  1996  6,150-11,648 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Common Teal Anas crecca winter  1992  14,952 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris breeding  1995  50 breeding pairs  A1, A4i, B1i, B2  Vulnerable 
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca breeding  1995  30 breeding pairs  A1, B2  Near Threatened 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus winter  1,000-2,951 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Black Stork Ciconia nigra passage  1995  268 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
White Stork Ciconia ciconia passage  5,000-22,000 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus passage  1991  2,500 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax breeding  150 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides breeding  70 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea breeding  50 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus winter  1992  28-56 individuals  A1, A4i, B1i  Vulnerable 
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus winter  1996  46-180 individuals  A1  Least Concern 
Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga winter  1995  6-20 individuals  A1  Vulnerable 
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca winter  1993  6 individuals  A1  Vulnerable 
Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio breeding  300 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2  Least Concern 
Common Coot Fulica atra winter  1995  25,000-36,240 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Common Crane Grus grus winter  50-291 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Burhinus oedicnemus breeding  60 breeding pairs  B2  Not Recognised 
Charadrius alexandrinus breeding  200 breeding pairs  B1i, B2  Not Recognised 
Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus breeding  300 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola breeding  300 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2  Least Concern 
Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii non-breeding  68 individuals  A1  Least Concern 
Little Tern Sternula albifrons breeding  150 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Halcyon smyrnensis breeding  10 breeding pairs  B2  Not Recognised 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  20,125-91,097 individuals  A4iii   
A4iv Species group - soaring birds/cranes passage  5,000-22,000 individuals  A4iv, B1iv   

IBA Monitoring

2013 high very unfavourable medium
Poor - based on little, or potentially unreliable/unrepresentative, data

Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Mareca penelope Eurasian Wigeon 25275 3940 - 16 very unfavourable
Spatula clypeata Northern Shoveler 4325 2275 - 53 unfavourable
Anas crecca Common Teal 25000 3515 - 15 very unfavourable
Aythya nyroca Ferruginous Duck 5 1 - 20 very unfavourable
Phoenicopterus roseus Greater Flamingo 1065 16 - 2 very unfavourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Goksu Delta SIT (Law on Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets No. 2863) 14,480 protected area contained by site 14,480  
Göksu Deltasi Specially Protected Area 23,600 protected area contains site 21,610  
Göksu Deltasi Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 15,000 protected area contained by site 15,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) Rivers and streams; Standing freshwater; Water fringe vegetation  -
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land  50%
Coastline Lagoons; Salt marshes; Sand dunes & beaches  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 50%
fisheries/aquaculture 10%
nature conservation and research 10%
tourism/recreation 10%
not utilised 20%

Protection status National High International High4,350 ha of IBA covered by Permanent Wildlife Reserve (Göksu Deltasý, 4,350 ha). 14,480 ha of IBA covered by SÝT (Göksu Deltasý, 14,480 ha). 8,650 ha of IBA covered by Ramsar Site (Göksu Deltasý, 8,650 ha). 14,480 ha of IBA covered by Mediterranean Specially Protected Area (Göksu Deltasý, 23,600 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Göksu Delta. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016

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