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Location Turkey, Kayseri
Central coordinates 35o 16.00' East  38o 22.00' North
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2, B3
Area 45,350 ha
Altitude 1,074 m
Year of IBA assessment 2004

Doga Dernegi (Partner Designate)



Site description The IBA lies in the Develi closed basin, surrounded by mountains. The wetland comprises a series of salt, brackish and freshwater lakes, and extensive marshes, and reaches 20,000 ha at its maximum extent. The salt-lakes are surrounded by Salicornia steppe; the southern marshes comprise vast reedbeds (Phragmites) interspersed with expanses of Typha, Juncus and Carex. Human activities include sheep- and cattle-grazing, and reed-cutting (`Other' land-use).

Key Biodiversity The site holds significant numbers of a range of breeding, wintering and passage waterbirds. Large numbers of Phoenicopterus ruber, Grus grus and Recurvirostra avosetta use the wetland in autumn. Chettusia leucura apparently bred in 1996.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea winter  1990  267-539 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea non-breeding  215-2,283 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Gadwall Mareca strepera breeding  20 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Common Teal Anas crecca winter  1999  5,710-23,732 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris breeding  5 breeding pairs  A1, B1i, B2  Vulnerable 
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris passage  1998  121 individuals  A1, A4i, B1i  Vulnerable 
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina breeding  1994  300-400 breeding pairs  B1i  Least Concern 
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca breeding  1991  30-50 breeding pairs  A1, B2  Near Threatened 
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala breeding  1994  20 breeding pairs  A1, B2  Endangered 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus passage  1,000-59,150 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus breeding  1994  75 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia passage  1988  138 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides breeding  70 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus winter  1996  50-850 individuals  A1, B1i  Least Concern 
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus breeding  1994  200 breeding pairs  A1, B1i, B3  Least Concern 
Common Crane Grus grus breeding  20 breeding pairs  B1i, B2  Least Concern 
Common Crane Grus grus winter  43-150 individuals  B1i  Least Concern 
Himantopus himantopus breeding  1994  390 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i  Not Recognised 
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta passage  1994  2,115 individuals  A4i, B1i  Least Concern 
Charadrius alexandrinus breeding  100 breeding pairs  B2  Not Recognised 
Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus breeding  1994  20 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii breeding  50-100 breeding pairs  B1i, B2  Least Concern 
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola breeding  50 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Sterna nilotica breeding  50 breeding pairs  B2  Not Recognised 
Little Tern Sternula albifrons breeding  1994  100 breeding pairs  B2  Least Concern 
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida breeding  1994  400 breeding pairs  A4i, B1i, B2  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  1999  27,373 individuals  A4iii   
A4iii Species group - waterbirds passage  27,258-129,801 individuals  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2011 high very unfavourable low
  Population
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming likely in short term (within 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - dams (size unknown) likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration medium
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Anser anser Greylag Goose 2 1 adults only 50 unfavourable
Tadorna ferruginea Ruddy Shelduck 116 23 adults only 20 very unfavourable
Mareca strepera Gadwall 702 5 adults only 1 very unfavourable
Anas crecca Common Teal 3926 2610 adults only 67 unfavourable
Netta rufina Red-crested Pochard 95 160 adults only 100 favourable
Phoenicopterus roseus Greater Flamingo 54 1 adults only 2 very unfavourable
Grus grus Common Crane 56 1 adults only 2 very unfavourable

Some of site covered (10-49%)  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Sultan Marshes National Park 24,525 is identical to site 15,585  
Sultan Marshes Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 17,200 protected area contained by site 17,200  
Sultansazligi SIT (Law on Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets No. 2863) 17,200 protected area contained by site 17,200  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Grassland Steppes and dry calcareous grassland  40%
Wetlands (inland) Standing brackish and salt water; Water fringe vegetation  55%
Artificial - terrestrial Arable land  5%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture 10%
nature conservation and research 50%
tourism/recreation 20%
not utilised 20%
other -

Protection status National High International Partial17,200 ha of IBA covered by Nature Reserve (Sultansazlýðý, 17,200 ha). 39,000 ha of IBA covered by Permanent Wildlife Reserve (Sultansazlýðý, 45,000 ha). 17,200 ha of IBA covered by SÝT (Sultansazlýðý, 17,200 ha). 17,200 ha of IBA covered by Ramsar Site (Sultansazlýðý, 17,200 ha).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Sultan Marsh. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014

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