Sites - Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)
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Mkhambati Nature Reserve
South Africa, Eastern Cape
29o 59.00' East 31o 16.00' South
A1, A2, A3, A4ii
0 - 300m
Year of IBA assessment
BirdLife South Africa
Summary The Mkambati Nature Reserve is situated on the coast of northeast Pondoland in the Eastern Cape. It is bounded by the Mtenu River in the north and the Mzikaba River in the south; in the east, between the two river mouths, it holds a 13 km stretch of pristine coastline. The cliffs on the Mtenu River hold a Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres colony, Southern Ground-Hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri and Black-bellied Bustard Lissotis melanogaster.
Site description The Mkambati Nature Reserve is situated on the coast of north-east Pondoland in the Eastern Cape. It is bounded by the Mtenu river in the north and the Mzikaba river in the south; in the east, between the two river mouths, it holds a 13 km stretch of pristine coastline. The reserve stretches inland c.5 km along the Mzikaba river and c.9.5 km along the Mtenu river. The gentle topography is interrupted by two steps (ancient shorelines) parallel to the coast, the first at 85 m elevation and the second at 190 m. The Mtenu river reaches the ocean through a long, incised and meandering gorge. Table Mountain sandstone cliffs flank the river, rising 300 m from the riverbed to meet the surrounding plains. The Mtenu river forms a spectacular waterfall c.9 km upstream of the coast. The waterfall has cut an almost straight cliff-face some 500 m wide. The cliffs are for the most part sheer, beginning at the coast and continuing inland for about 10–20 km.The vegetation is primarily Pondoland coastal plateau sourveld grassland, on poor but well-drained soils. The grasses are low in nutrient content and are of little agricultural value to commercial or subsistence farmers. Surprisingly large numbers of fynbos species also occur, in unburned grasslands or on rock outcrops where they are protected from regular fires. Small forest patches exist in the river gorges and on the coastal sand-dunes.
Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. The cliffs on the Mtenu river hold one of the largest remaining colonies of Gyps coprotheres in the Eastern Cape. This colony is also one of the few protected breeding sites in the world. The grassland supports Balearica regulorum, Neotis denhami and Saxicola bifasciata. Scattered Protea bushes hold Promerops gurneyi. The small forest patches hold Cossypha dichroa, Cercotrichas signata and Zoothera guttata, which may breed here. Campethera notata, nearing the northern limit of its distribution here, is uncommon. Turnix hottentotta, Crex crex and Sarothrura affinis have all been recorded in grassland areas nearby, and almost certainly occur within the reserve. The Mtenu river and its tributaries have thick overhanging riverine vegetation which support Gorsachius leuconotus, Podica senegalensis and Alcedo semitorquata.
Non-bird biodiversity: The area is particularly rich in highly localized endemic frogs—Afrixalus knysnae, Arthroleptella hewitti and Arthroleptis wahlbergi all occur along this coastal region and possibly occur within the reserve. There are c.1,600 reintroduced wild ungulates in the reserve, including the nationally endemic Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi.