|Location||South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal|
|Central coordinates||29o 29.00' East 30o 30.00' South|
|Year of IBA assessment||1998|
Summary The site is located 5 km northeast of Kokstad, at an altitude of 1 300 m a.s.l. It lies within a narrow finger of Highland Sourveld to Cymbopogon-Themeda Veld Transition. It occupies the valley bottom along the meandering course of the Manzimnyama River amidst agricultural land. This site contains White-winged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi.
Site description The site is located 5 km north-east of Kokstad, occupying the valley bottom along the meandering course of the Manzimnyama river amidst agricultural land. It lies within a narrow finger of transition between highland sourveld and Cymbopogon-Themeda veld. The permanently saturated to flooded areas are Typha-dominated, particularly the lowest depressions in the vlei. Tall sedges of Cyperus and Mariscus are locally dominant in less permanently and deeply flooded conditions, often with other Cyperus, Schoenoplectus and Juncus. The sedges extend into the seasonally flooded areas, where they occur alongside Eleocharis, Leersia and Paspalum. Seasonal or ephemeral flooding in sedge meadow and wet grassland is often extensive, and up to 50 cm deep, but in some years much of the flood-plain remains almost completely dry.
Key Biodiversity See Box for key species. This is one of only four sites in South Africa known to have held Sarothrura ayresi regularly over the last eight years. This site has held up to four Sarothrura ayresi in years of good flooding and, if vegetation were allowed to develop more naturally, without annual burning and spring grazing, it would probably support more than twice this number. Crex crex is probably annual in grassland around the vlei. Botaurus stellaris is resident and is presumed to breed. The winter reedbed roost of Balearica regulorum builds up to numbers in excess of 100.
Non-bird biodiversity: None known to BirdLife International.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|White-winged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi||winter||-||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||likely in short term (within 4 years)||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target)||likely in short term (within 4 years)||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||problematic native species/diseases - named species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||likely in short term (within 4 years)||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Natural system modifications||other ecosystem modifications||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||domestic & urban waste water - type unknown/unrecorded||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Pollution||industrial & military effluents - type unknown/unrecorded||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Residential and commercial development||tourism and recreation areas||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Transportation and service corridors||roads and railroads||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Grassland||0||0||poor (40-69%)||very poor (< 40%)||very unfavourable|
|Wetlands (inland)||0||0||good (> 90%)||moderate (70-90%)||near favourable|
|Sarothrura ayresi||White-winged Flufftail||4||4||individuals||100||not assessed|
|Bugeranus carunculatus||Wattled Crane||3||3||individuals||100||favourable|
|Little/none of site covered (<10%)||No management planning has taken place||Some limited conservation initiatives are in place||negligible|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||100%|
References Begg (1989), Taylor (1994, 1997a,b).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Penny Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2016
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