|Location||South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal|
|Central coordinates||29o 27.00' East 29o 57.00' South|
|Altitude||1,250 - 1,745m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2001|
Summary Located c. 18 km due south of Underberg, the major feature of the IBA is the Ingwangwana River. The floodplain is fairly flat and narrow, rising up gently from the south bank to a series of low hills. Whitewinged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi, African Marsh Harrier Circus ranivorus, Grey Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum and Wattled Crane Bugeranus carunculatus have been recorded in the area.
Site description Located c.18 km due south of Underberg, the major feature of the site is the Ingwangwana river, which flows south-south-eastwards through the southern portion of Coleford Nature Reserve. The flood-plain is fairly flat and narrow, rising up gently from the south bank to a series of low hills, which overlook its major tributary, the Ndowana river. The terrestrial vegetation consists of sour grassveld, with a dense, fairly short sward. Five small wetlands lie alongside the river. These are often seasonally flooded, and lie in natural depressions such as old oxbows. The vegetation in these wetlands is predominately wet grassland with extensive stands of sedge Carex.
Key Biodiversity See Box for key species. Sarothrura ayresi has been seen at this site, and it holds enough potential for 6–8 birds, but it remains to be established whether the habitat is only suitable in some years. The vlei also holds Grus carunculatus. The surrounding rolling grassland holds Circus maurus, Grus paradisea and Neotis denhami. The small patches of forest in the gullies are home to Lioptilus nigricapillus, while the rocky outcrops support Saxicola bifasciata and Monticola explorator.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres||winter||-||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|Black Harrier Circus maurus||resident||-||present||-||A1||Vulnerable|
|White-winged Flufftail Sarothrura ayresi||winter||-||present||-||A1||Critically Endangered|
|Bush Blackcap Lioptilus nigricapillus||resident||1998||present||-||A1||Near Threatened|
|Buff-streaked Chat Oenanthe bifasciata||resident||1998||present||-||A1||Least Concern|
|2013||very high||not assessed||high|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target)||likely in short term (within 4 years)||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||very high|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Pollution||agricultural & forestry effluents - nutrient loads||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Residential and commercial development||tourism and recreation areas||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Transportation and service corridors||roads and railroads||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Transportation and service corridors||utility & service lines||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||no or imperceptible deterioration||low|
|Grassland||Grassland - montane||0||0||good (> 90%)||moderate (70-90%)||near favourable|
|Wetlands (inland)||0||0||moderate (70-90%)||good (> 90%)||near favourable|
|Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation||A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species||Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity||high|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Coleford||Provincial Nature Reserve||1,255||protected area contains site||2,000|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Grassland||Grassland - montane||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||100%|
References Taylor (1997a,b).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2015) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Greater Ngwangwana River. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/10/2015
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