|Location||South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal|
|Central coordinates||30o 3.00' East 29o 56.00' South|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||560 - 1,720m|
|Year of IBA assessment||1998|
Summary The mistbelt forms an irregular band through the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, extending from Weza in the southwest to Ngome in the northeast. The forests hold many important species, including the largest remaining population of the threatened Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus as well as Red-necked Spurfowl Pternistis afer and Lemon Dove Aplopelia larvata.
Site description The mistbelt forms an irregular band through the KwaZulu-Natal midlands, extending from Weza in the south-west to Ngome in the north-east. It once had a large grassland component, which is now almost entirely transformed by agriculture and commercial timber. The forest component consists of a series of patches occurring mainly on southern slopes where evaporation is less and the effects of fire reduced. Before colonial settlement in the 1800s these forests were larger and more numerous, and many may have been contiguous.Mistbelt forest represents a southern extension of the Afromontane forests of tropical Africa. In KwaZulu-Natal most of these forests occur between 1,200 and 1,400 m, but may extend as low as 560 m or as high as 1,720 m This habitat has as its unifying feature, in the climax stage of succession, the dominance of Podocarpus trees (three species are present in KwaZulu-Natal). In the early stages of forest succession, trees of Celtis and Kiggelaria are typical. Common mistbelt trees in later stages are of Combretum, Calodendrum, Zanthoxylum, Scolopia, Vepris, Ekebergia and Halleria. Ilex, Ficus and Prunus are more common alongside streams.Because of the scattered nature of mistbelt forests, none of which is outstandingly better than the others, it is difficult to single out individual blocks as IBAs; equally, it is impractical to designate them all, since the total number must run into thousands. The forest patches function in unison as a single ecological unit. Therefore the selection criteria adopted for inclusion in this blanket IBA are a minimum patch size of 50 ha and the presence of the bird species that is the best indicator of climax forest, Poicephalus robustus robustus. The IBA thus comprises 23 such forests, of which 12 are State Forests (3,832 ha), nine are privately owned (2,772 ha), and four have mixed ownership (5,344 ha). There are a further 42 forests in the mistbelt that individually exceed 50 ha in extent, and which total 9,071 ha, but they are not listed here because they do not support Poicephalus robustus robustus.
Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. The forests hold many important species, including the largest remaining population of the threatened Poicephalus robustus robustus. Bird parties are frequent, and typical forest birds include Ceratogymna bucinator, Apaloderma narina, Zoothera gurneyi, Lioptilus nigricapillus, Tauraco corythaix, Coracina caesia, Cossypha dichroa, Pogonocichla stellata, Phylloscopus ruficapilla, Trochocercus cyanomelas, Telophorus olivaceus, Estrilda melanotis and Serinus scotops. The quiet forest streams hold Alcedo semitorquata and Motacilla clara.
Non-bird biodiversity: Of the trees, Podocarpus henkelii is endemic to the mistbelt forests, and Ocotea bullata is exceptionally rare. Other flowering plants of interest are Geranium natalense and Polystachya ottoniana. Mistbelt forests are very rich in endemic invertebrates, notably spiders, beetles, earthworms, snails and millipedes: many are still being described. Of exceptional interest is the presence, only in Ingele Forest, of the onychophoran Opisthopatus roseus (EX).
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Buteo oreophilus||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Not Recognised|
|Knysna Turaco Tauraco corythaix||resident||1998||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Olive Bush-shrike Telophorus olivaceus||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Grey Cuckooshrike Coracina caesia||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|African Scrub-warbler Bradypterus barratti||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Yellow-throated Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus ruficapilla||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Bush Blackcap Lioptilus nigricapillus||resident||1998||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|Orange Ground-thrush Zoothera gurneyi||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Chorister Robin-chat Cossypha dichroa||resident||1998||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis||resident||1998||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Forest Canary Serinus scotops||resident||1998||present||-||A2, A3||Least Concern|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Agriculture and aquaculture||wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target)||happening now||whole area/population (>90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - intentional use: large scale||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||low|
|Biological resource use||logging & wood harvesting - intentional use: subsistence/small scale||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||recreational activities||happening now||small area/few individuals (<10%)||slow but significant deterioration||low|
|Human intrusions and disturbance||work and other activities||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||moderate to rapid deterioration||high|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Natural system modifications||fire & fire suppression - trend unknown/unrecorded||happening now||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||high|
|Forest||Montane forest - mixed||0||0||moderate (70-90%)||poor (40-69%)||very unfavourable|
|Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species)||No management plan exists but the management planning process has begun||Very little or no conservation action taking place||low|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Forest||Montane forest - mixed||-|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|nature conservation and research||100%|
References McCracken (1987), Wirminghaus (1998).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: KwaZulu-Natal Mistbelt Forests. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/05/2016
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