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Location Uganda, Masindi
Central coordinates 31o 35.34' East  1o 49.32' North
IBA criteria A1, A3
Area 81,000 ha
Altitude 700 - 1,270m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

NatureUganda



Site description Budongo Forest Reserve, one of the most important in Uganda, lies on the escarpment north-east of Lake Albert. It consists of a medium-altitude moist semi-deciduous forest (covering c.42,800 ha), with areas of savanna and woodland. The reserve occupies gently undulating terrain, with a general slope north-north-west towards the Rift Valley. The forest is drained by four small rivers (Sonso, Waisoke, Wake and Bubwa) which flow into Lake Albert.Budongo has five main forest-types: colonizing, mixed, Cynometra, Cynometra-mixed and swamp-forest. The majority of the reserve is covered by tropical high-forest communities. Medium-altitude semi-deciduous Cynometra-Celtis forest covers about half of the site and Combretum savanna is widespread in drier areas. The forest is partially degraded, mainly because of pit-sawing and saw-milling over many years. The vegetation has also changed considerably following 60 years of selective logging and silvicultural treatment which favoured the growth of valuable timber species, especially mahoganies. Today, the forest is the richest for timber production in the country.The Forest Master Plan prescribes conservation of forest biodiversity and ecological conditions, economic production of hardwood timber on a sustainable basis, integration of the communities living near the Forest Reserve in collaborative management, development and provision of recreational facilities, and the pursuit of research on various aspects of forest ecosystem dynamics. The Budongo Forest Project is based at Sonso and carries out research throughout the forest, mainly on primates and birds. There are ecotourism sites at Busingiro and Kaniyo Pabidi.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Table 3 for key species. Two species of birds found in Budongo Forest Reserve are not found elsewhere in East Africa. The forest is the second most important in Uganda (after Semliki National Park, IBA UG009) for species of the Guinea–Congo Forests biome, and the list of such species will probably continue to grow. Muscicapa sethsmithi, only known from Budongo in Uganda, used to be common in mature forest, but is now extremely hard to find. Illadopsis puveli, a recent addition, is not known elsewhere in East Africa. Other species such as Ceratogymna fistulator, Smithornis rufolateralis, Ixonotus guttatus, Neafrapus cassini, Sylvietta denti, Batis ituriensis and Zoothera camaronensis are known from few other forests in the country. Other rare species in Budongo Forest include Pitta reichenowi and Parmoptila woodhousei, both with multiple recent records. Aside from the two biomes under which the site qualifies as an IBA, species restricted to other biomes also occur, including seven from the Afrotropical Highlands biome.

Non-bird biodiversity: Four tree species are of conservation concern: Cordia millenni, Irvingia gabonensis (LR/nt), Milicia excelsa (LR/nt) and Entandrophragma angolense (VU). Threatened mammals include Pan troglodytes (EN) and Loxodonta africana (EN; although this species has rarely visited Budongo in recent years). The butterfly Papilio antimachus (DD) occurs.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Trachyphonus purpuratus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Speckled Tinkerbird Pogoniulus scolopaceus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Tinkerbird Pogoniulus subsulphureus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Barbet Buccanodon duchaillui resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hairy-breasted Barbet Tricholaema hirsuta resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nahan's Partridge Ptilopachus nahani resident  1998  present  A1, A3  Endangered 
Forest Francolin Peliperdix lathami resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Hawk-eagle Aquila africana resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-spotted Flufftail Sarothrura pulchra resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Afep Pigeon Columba unicincta resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-collared Lovebird Agapornis swindernianus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Psittacus erithacus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
White-crested Turaco Tauraco leucolophus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx mechowi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx olivinus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-chested Owlet Glaucidium tephronotum resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus nigriscapularis resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Sabine's Spinetail Rhaphidura sabini resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Spinetail Neafrapus cassini resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Roller Eurystomus gularis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chocolate-backed Kingfisher Halcyon badia resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Dwarf-kingfisher Ispidina lecontei resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bycanistes fistulator resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Tockus fasciatus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Grey-cheeked Hornbill Bycanistes subcylindricus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-cheeked Hornbill Bycanistes cylindricus resident  1998  present  A3  Vulnerable 
Cassin's Honeybird Prodotiscus insignis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Willcocks's Honeyguide Indicator willcocksi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-spotted Woodpecker Campethera nivosa resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-eared Woodpecker Campethera caroli resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Speckle-breasted Woodpecker Dendropicos poecilolaemus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-crested Woodpecker Dendropicos xantholophus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-sided Broadbill Smithornis rufolateralis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-breasted Pitta Pitta reichenowi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Shrike-flycatcher Megabyas flammulatus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ituri Batis Batis ituriensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut Wattle-eye Platysteira castanea resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Jameson's Wattle-eye Platysteira jamesoni resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Black-headed Oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Crested-flycatcher Elminia nigromitrata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-capped Flycatcher Erythrocercus mccallii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Piapiac Ptilostomus afer resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Tit Parus funereus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-winged Grey Warbler Drymocichla incana resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Apalis rufogularis resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Yellow-browed Camaroptera Camaroptera superciliaris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive-green Camaroptera Camaroptera chloronota resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Greenbul Andropadus gracilis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Plain Greenbul Andropadus curvirostris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Honeyguide Greenbul Baeopogon indicator resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Greenbul Ixonotus guttatus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Leaf-love Pyrrhurus scandens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Toro Olive Greenbul Phyllastrephus hypochloris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-throated Greenbul Phyllastrephus albigularis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Icterine Greenbul Phyllastrephus icterinus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Xavier's Greenbul Phyllastrephus xavieri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Common Bristlebill Bleda syndactylus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-tailed Bulbul Criniger calurus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Nicator Nicator chloris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow Longbill Macrosphenus flavicans resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Longbill Macrosphenus concolor resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Hylia Hylia prasina resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Uganda Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus budongoensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-crowned Eremomela Eremomela badiceps resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Crombec Sylvietta virens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lemon-bellied Crombec Sylvietta denti resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scaly-breasted Illadopsis Illadopsis albipectus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Illadopsis Illadopsis fulvescens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple-headed Glossy-starling Lamprotornis purpureiceps resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple Glossy-starling Lamprotornis purpureus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bronze-tailed Glossy-starling Lamprotornis chalcurus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-winged Starling Onychognathus fulgidus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Narrow-tailed Starling Poeoptera lugubris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Ant-thrush Neocossyphus poensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous Flycatcher-thrush Stizorhina fraseri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-eared Ground-thrush Zoothera camaronensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Alethe diademata resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Forest Robin Stiphrornis erythrothorax resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lowland Akalat Sheppardia cyornithopsis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Forest Flycatcher Fraseria ocreata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sooty Flycatcher Muscicapa infuscata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-footed Flycatcher Muscicapa sethsmithi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky-blue Flycatcher Muscicapa comitata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Grey Flycatcher Muscicapa cassini resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-throated Tit-flycatcher Myioparus griseigularis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scarlet-tufted Sunbird Anthreptes fraseri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Sunbird Anthreptes rectirostris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Little Green Sunbird Nectarinia seimundi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Nectarinia cyanolaema resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-throated Sunbird Nectarinia rubescens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Superb Sunbird Nectarinia superba resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-weaver Plocepasser superciliosus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Vieillot's Black Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-mantled Weaver Ploceus tricolor resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Crested Malimbe Malimbus malimbicus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Malimbe Malimbus rubricollis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Woodhouse's Antpecker Parmoptila woodhousei resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita fusconotus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita bicolor resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-cheeked Oliveback Nesocharis capistrata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-bellied Firefinch Lagonosticta rara resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-rumped Bunting Emberiza affinis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2012 medium favourable medium
Habitat
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species direct mortality of trigger species - hunting and trapping happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species habitat effects - gathering plants happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable
Savanna   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Budongo Forest Reserve 81,788 protected area contains site 79,300  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   9%
Unknown   13%
Savanna   2%
Forest   74%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
water management -
other -
Notes: Fuelwood collection.

References Dranzoa et al. (1997), Eggeling (1947), Forest Department (2000), Howard (1991), Langdale-Brown et al. (1964), Owiunji (1996), Plumptre (1996).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Budongo Forest Reserve. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife