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Location Uganda, Kabale,Kisoro,Rukungiri
Central coordinates 29o 42.12' East  1o 1.20' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 32,700 ha
Altitude 1,190 - 2,607m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

NatureUganda



Site description The park lies on the edge of the Albertine (or Western) Rift Valley and occupies the highest block of the Kigezi highlands, also known as the Rukiga highlands. It is located on Uganda’s border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The topography of the park is extremely rugged and much dissected, especially in the higher southern sector. The only flat area of any size is Mubwindi swamp (c.80 ha). The remainder (almost all forested) consists of narrow, very steep-sided valleys bounded by hill crests, spanning altitudes between 1,400 m in the northern sector and 2,600 m in the south.The forest is one of the largest in East Africa that contains both medium-altitude and montane forest in a continuum. As a result of its wide altitudinal range and relatively large size, and its probable role as a Pleistocene refugium, the species-richness of the forest is extremely high, for both flora and fauna. This forest is believed to be a mere remnant of a very large forest which once covered much of western Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and eastern DRC. Today, Bwindi is an ecological island surrounded by one of the highest human population densities in Africa (100–450 individuals/km²). Immediately beyond its borders, there is virtually no natural forest remaining and much of the land is intensively cultivated.The Institute of Tropical Forest Conservation, which belongs to Mbarara University of Science and Technology, is based at Ruhija. The park is host to considerable ecotourist activities, particularly gorilla-tracking and birdwatching.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. The National Park has been extensively surveyed for birds. Its checklist currently totals 347 species. Mubwindi swamp is home to Bradypterus graueri. Indicator pumilio is only known in Uganda, with certainty, from this locality. Some of the species endemic to the Albertine Rift, such as Pseudocalyptomena graueri, Muscicapa lendu and Cryptospiza shelleyi, have limited distributions elsewhere in their range. The park also holds Zoothera oberlaenderi, one of the six species of the Eastern DR Congo lowlands Endemic Bird Area (EBA 107). The northern sector is especially rich in species of the Guinea–Congo Forests biome.

Non-bird biodiversity: Eight species of tree are known only from this forest in Uganda. Among threatened mammals, the forest contains about 300 individuals of Gorilla gorilla beringei (CR), roughly half of the world population of this subspecies, as well as Loxodonta africana (EN), Pan troglodytes (EN) and Cercopithecus l’hoesti (LR/nt).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Trachyphonus purpuratus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Speckled Tinkerbird Pogoniulus scolopaceus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus coryphaea resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Tinkerbird Pogoniulus subsulphureus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Barbet Buccanodon duchaillui resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hairy-breasted Barbet Tricholaema hirsuta resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Handsome Francolin Pternistis nobilis resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Buteo oreophilus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Cassin's Hawk-eagle Aquila africana resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-spotted Flufftail Sarothrura pulchra resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Afep Pigeon Columba unicincta resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-collared Lovebird Agapornis swindernianus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Psittacus erithacus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Ruwenzori Turaco Gallirex johnstoni resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx mechowi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx olivinus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bubo poensis resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Red-chested Owlet Glaucidium tephronotum resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus nigriscapularis resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Caprimulgus poliocephalus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Caprimulgus ruwenzorii resident  1998  present  A2  Not Recognised 
Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Roller Eurystomus gularis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black Bee-eater Merops gularis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater Merops oreobates resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Forest Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus castaneiceps resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-cheeked Hornbill Bycanistes subcylindricus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-cheeked Hornbill Bycanistes cylindricus resident  1998  present  A3  Vulnerable 
Dwarf Honeyguide Indicator pumilio resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Cassin's Honeybird Prodotiscus insignis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Willcocks's Honeyguide Indicator willcocksi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Campethera tullbergi resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Buff-spotted Woodpecker Campethera nivosa resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-eared Woodpecker Campethera caroli resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-crested Woodpecker Dendropicos xantholophus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Green Broadbill Pseudocalyptomena graueri resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Green-breasted Pitta Pitta reichenowi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Shrike-flycatcher Megabyas flammulatus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ruwenzori Batis Batis diops resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut Wattle-eye Platysteira castanea resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Jameson's Wattle-eye Platysteira jamesoni resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-bellied Helmet-shrike Prionops caniceps resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-green Bush-shrike Telophorus bocagei resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Doherty's Bush-shrike Telophorus dohertyi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lagden's Bush-shrike Malaconotus lagdeni resident  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Sooty Boubou Laniarius leucorhynchus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Boubou Laniarius poensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Cuckooshrike Coracina caesia resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Petit's Cuckooshrike Campephaga petiti resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Western Black-headed Oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-tailed Oriole Oriolus percivali resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Crested-flycatcher Elminia nigromitrata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Crested-flycatcher Elminia albiventris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Crested-flycatcher Elminia albonotata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Tit Parus funereus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Stripe-breasted Tit Parus fasciiventer resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Chubb's Cisticola Cisticola chubbi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Carruthers's Cisticola Cisticola carruthersi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Collared Apalis Oreolais ruwenzorii resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Black-faced Apalis Apalis personata resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Apalis rufogularis resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Chestnut-throated Apalis Apalis porphyrolaema resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-browed Camaroptera Camaroptera superciliaris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive-green Camaroptera Camaroptera chloronota resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Eastern Mountain Greenbul Andropadus nigriceps resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Shelley's Greenbul Andropadus masukuensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Greenbul Andropadus gracilis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Plain Greenbul Andropadus curvirostris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Honeyguide Greenbul Baeopogon indicator resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Joyful Greenbul Chlorocichla laetissima resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Toro Olive Greenbul Phyllastrephus hypochloris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Icterine Greenbul Phyllastrephus icterinus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Common Bristlebill Bleda syndactylus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-tailed Bulbul Criniger calurus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-spotted Nicator Nicator chloris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Neumann's Warbler Hemitesia neumanni resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Scrub-warbler Bradypterus carpalis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grauer's Swamp-warbler Bradypterus graueri resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Mountain Flycatcher-warbler Chloropeta similis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Hylia Hylia prasina resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-faced Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus laetus resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Grauer's Warbler Graueria vittata resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Turner's Eremomela Eremomela turneri resident  1998  present  A3  Endangered 
Green Crombec Sylvietta virens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-browed Crombec Sylvietta leucophrys resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scaly-breasted Illadopsis Illadopsis albipectus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Illadopsis Illadopsis fulvescens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Illadopsis Illadopsis pyrrhoptera resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-chested Babbler Kakamega poliothorax resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Hill Babbler Pseudoalcippe abyssinica resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Capuchin Babbler Phyllanthus atripennis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple-headed Glossy-starling Lamprotornis purpureiceps resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sharpe's Starling Cinnyricinclus sharpii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Stuhlmann's Starling Poeoptera stuhlmanni resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Narrow-tailed Starling Poeoptera lugubris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Ant-thrush Neocossyphus poensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Zoothera tanganjicae resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Not Recognised 
Forest Ground-thrush Zoothera oberlaenderi resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Black-eared Ground-thrush Zoothera camaronensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-throated Alethe Alethe poliophrys resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Alethe diademata resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Equatorial Akalat Sheppardia aequatorialis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Robin-chat Cossyphicula roberti resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Archer's Robin-chat Cossypha archeri resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Blue-shouldered Robin-chat Cossypha cyanocampter resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-eyed Black Flycatcher Melaenornis ardesiacus resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Dioptrornis fischeri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sooty Flycatcher Muscicapa infuscata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chapin's Flycatcher Muscicapa lendu resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Dusky-blue Flycatcher Muscicapa comitata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cassin's Grey Flycatcher Muscicapa cassini resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-throated Tit-flycatcher Myioparus griseigularis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scarlet-tufted Sunbird Anthreptes fraseri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green Sunbird Anthreptes rectirostris resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Little Green Sunbird Nectarinia seimundi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-headed Sunbird Nectarinia alinae resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Nectarinia cyanolaema resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Green-throated Sunbird Nectarinia rubescens resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Northern Double-collared Sunbird Nectarinia preussi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Regal Sunbird Nectarinia regia resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Purple-breasted Sunbird Nectarinia purpureiventris resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Bronze Sunbird Nectarinia kilimensis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Superb Sunbird Nectarinia superba resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-billed Weaver Ploceus melanogaster resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Strange Weaver Ploceus alienus resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Vieillot's Black Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-mantled Weaver Ploceus tricolor resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-capped Weaver Ploceus insignis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-headed Malimbe Malimbus rubricollis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Woodhouse's Antpecker Parmoptila woodhousei resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita fusconotus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-collared Oliveback Nesocharis ansorgei resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Crimson-wing Cryptospiza salvadorii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Crimson-wing Cryptospiza jacksoni resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Shelley's Crimson-wing Cryptospiza shelleyi resident  1998  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Dusky Twinspot Euschistospiza cinereovinacea resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-browed Citril Serinus frontalis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus striolatus resident  1998  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Thick-billed Seedeater Serinus burtoni resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2012 low favourable high
Habitat
-

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Forest   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  The conservation measures needed for the site are being comprehensively and effectively implemented  high 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park 32,700 is identical to site 32,700  
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park World Heritage Site 32,092 protected area contained by site 32,092  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   1%
Forest   97%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
water management -
other -
Notes: Collection of forest products.

References Butynski (1984), Gubelman, (1995), Harcourt et al. (1983), Howard (1991), Kalina and Butynski (1996), Keith et al. (1969), Langdale-Brown et al. (1964), Leggat and Osmaston (1961), Marks and Gnoske (1997), Mwambu (1999).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife