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Location Tanzania, Morogoro
Central coordinates 37o 43.56' East  7o 1.62' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 36,000 ha
Altitude 300 - 2,638m
Year of IBA assessment 2001





Site description The Uluguru mountains rise abruptly out of the coastal plain at 300 m and run north–south. Except for the boggy grassland of Lukwangule plateau, they are characterized by many steep, forested peaks, with four distinct forest zones: lowland semi-evergreen forest; submontane evergreen and semi-evergreen forest, found mainly on the eastern side of the mountain; montane evergreen forest, which is found in a broad belt around the mountain; and an upper montane or lower subalpine zone which occurs above 2,100 m in Uluguru North and above 2,400 m in Uluguru South. Submontane to upper montane forest is now found almost exclusively in the smaller Uluguru North Catchment Forest Reserve (CFR) (8,356 ha), which is separated from the Uluguru South CFR (17,292 ha) by the Bunduki depression. The lower edge of the forest lies variously between 1,000 and 2,000 m elevation, with a few narrow strips down to 650 m. Forest once extended lower, but large areas have been converted to agriculture. Lowland forest at c.300 m remains only on the eastern face of the mountains in the Mkungwe (1,967 ha), Kimboza (405 ha), and Ruvu (3,093 ha) Forest Reserves (each of which is included in the IBA), and in a few other small patches. In most areas, subsistence agriculture is now carried out right up to the edge of the Forest Reserves, and a few small encroachments have been noted above Morogoro. The forests of the Uluguru mountains form the main catchment for the Ruvu river, the water-supply for Dar es Salaam.The Ulugurus are somewhat isolated and lie to the north-east of the Udzungwas (TZ066) and Uvidundas (TZ072) ranges and to the east of the Rubeho (TZ064) and Ukagurus (TZ067). This isolation is tempered by remnant forest on Nguru ya Ndege, a tiny peak (1,357 m) 20 km to the north-west and Malundwe mountain (1,200 m) within Mikumi National Park midway between the Ulugurus and the Uvidundas.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Moustached Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus leucomystax resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Buteo oreophilus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Southern Banded Snake-eagle Circaetus fasciolatus resident  2000  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bubo vosseleri resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Not Recognised 
Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Uluguru Bush-shrike Malaconotus alius resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Critically Endangered 
Fuelleborn's Boubou Laniarius fuelleborni resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Grey Cuckooshrike Coracina caesia resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Crested-flycatcher Elminia albonotata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Apalis Apalis chariessa resident  2000  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Chapin's Apalis Apalis chapini resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Eastern Mountain Greenbul Andropadus nigriceps resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Shelley's Greenbul Andropadus masukuensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Stripe-cheeked Greenbul Andropadus milanjensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Tailorbird Artisornis metopias resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Bracken Warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mrs Moreau's Warbler Bathmocercus winifredae resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Mountain Flycatcher-warbler Chloropeta similis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus ruficapilla resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Hill Babbler Pseudoalcippe abyssinica resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kenrick's Starling Poeoptera kenricki resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Orange Ground-thrush Zoothera gurneyi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-chested Alethe Alethe fuelleborni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spot-throat Modulatrix stictigula resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sharpe's Akalat Sheppardia sharpei resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Olive-flanked Robin-chat Cossypha anomala resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Dioptrornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Plain-backed Sunbird Anthreptes reichenowi resident  2000  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Banded Sunbird Anthreptes rubritorques resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Loveridge's Sunbird Nectarinia loveridgei resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Bertrand's Weaver Ploceus bertrandi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Usambara Weaver Ploceus nicolli resident  2000  present  A1  Endangered 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Crimson-wing Cryptospiza salvadorii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-faced Citril Serinus hypostictus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Kimboza Forest Reserve 38,500 protected area contained by site 385  
Mangala Forest Reserve 4,500 protected area contained by site 45  
Milawilila Forest Reserve 1,900 protected area contained by site 19  
Mkungwe Forest Reserve 556,939 protected area contained by site 5,569  
Ngambaula Forest Reserve 0 protected area contained by site 0  
Ruvu Forest Reserve 386,788 protected area contained by site 3,868  
Uluguru North Forest Reserve 842,174 protected area contained by site 8,422  
Uluguru South Forest Reserve 1,758,764 protected area contained by site 17,588  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland   4%
Forest   95%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
nature conservation and research -
water management -

Other biodiversity The Ulugurus are rich in plant life, with 40 endemic woody plant species. The mammals Galagoides zanzibaricus (LR/nt), Rhynchocyon petersi (EN) and Cephalophus spadix (VU) occur. Three of the reptiles are strictly endemic and 10 Eastern Arc Endemics occur while six of the forest amphibians are strict endemics (11 Eastern Arc endemics). The invertebrate fauna is exceptionally rich in endemics; millipedes (86% of the taxa recorded are endemic), linyphiid spiders (86%), butterflies (27%), harvestmen (88%), montane ground-beetles (95%), pselaphids (100%) and montane forest earwigs (91%).

Further web sources of information 

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This site has been identified as an AZE due to it containing a Critically Endangered or Endangered species with a limited range.

References Basilewsky (1976), Berger and Leleup (1975), Burgess and Clarke (2000), Hunter et al. (1996), Jocqué and Scharff (1986), Lovett and Pócs (1993), Lovett and Wasser (1993), Pócs (1974, 1976a, b), Rodgers et al. (1983), Roy et al. (1998), Scharff (1992), Svendsen and Hansen (1995).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Uluguru Mountains. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014

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