|Central coordinates||39o 0.00' East 5o 0.00' South|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3|
|Altitude||30 - 648m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2001|
Site description Muheza District is the most northerly coastal district in Tanzania, bordering Kenya and stretching from the coast into the East Usambara mountains. It contains a wide variety of natural habitats, including low-altitude and coastal forest, and some thicket. Much of the low coastal plain is covered in sisal and coconut plantations, on land cleared of closed-canopy forest. The Sigi river drains the central catchment of the East Usambara and enters the sea to the north of Tanga.There are 37 Forest Reserves listed for Muheza District, but most of these are associated with the East Usambara mountains (TZ070). There are a few isolated forests at lower altitudes between the Usambaras and the coast. These include Kilulu Hill (160 ha), Amboni Caves (350 ha), Pangani Falls (10 ha), Kwani (2,545 ha; only 600 ha of forest cover) and Tongwe-Muheza (1,202 ha; only 300 ha of forest cover). Other reserves such as Bassi (1,197 ha, but cleared for exotics), Gombero (2,399 ha, but cleared for agriculture) are excluded from the IBA.
Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. Recent records from the Pangani river include Scotopelia peli and Podica senegalensis. Anthus sokokensis may also occur at this site but the only records are from the 1930s.
Non-bird biodiversity: There are several coastal forest endemic mammals, reptiles, amphibians and plants. The latter include populations of plants (African violets) Saintpaulia spp. on Tongwe Hill.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Southern Banded Snake-eagle Circaetus fasciolatus||resident||2000||present||-||A1, A3||Near Threatened|
|Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus||resident||2000||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Fischer's Turaco Tauraco fischeri||resident||2000||present||-||A1, A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|Mombasa Woodpecker Campethera mombassica||resident||2000||unknown||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Four-coloured Bush-shrike Telophorus quadricolor||resident||2000||unknown||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Black-bellied Glossy-starling Lamprotornis corruscus||resident||2000||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Plain-backed Sunbird Anthreptes reichenowi||resident||2000||present||-||A1, A3||Near Threatened|
|Zanzibar Bishop Euplectes nigroventris||resident||2000||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis||resident||2000||unknown||-||A2, A3||Endangered|
|Eastern Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus simplex||resident||2000||unknown||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Brown-breasted Barbet Pogonornis melanopterus||resident||2000||present||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Protected area||Designation||Area (ha)||Relationship with IBA||Overlap with IBA (ha)|
|Amboni Caves||Forest Reserve||350||protected area contained by site||350|
|Kilulu Hill||Forest Reserve||160||protected area contained by site||160|
|Kwani||Forest Reserve||310,524||protected area contained by site||3,105|
|Pangani Falls||Forest Reserve||10||protected area contained by site||10|
|Tongwe||Forest Reserve||136,600||protected area overlaps with site||1,366|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
References Burgess and Clarke (2000), Clarke and Stubblefield (1995), Faldborg et al. (1991), Fottland (1996).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Muheza District Coastal Forests. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/10/2016
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