email a friend
printable version
Location Tanzania, Pwani
Central coordinates 39o 0.00' East  6o 55.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 42,000 ha
Altitude 100 - 305m
Year of IBA assessment 2001





Site description The range of low hills running south-west from Dar es Salaam to the border of the Selous Game Reserve attracts higher rainfall than the coastal plain and this has resulted in the development of evergreen forest with a poor ground flora on the mainly dry sandy soils. Three Forest Reserves comprise this site: Pugu Hills Forest Reserve (2,180 ha), of which less than 400 ha remains in reasonable condition; Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserve (4,887 ha), of which perhaps only 900 ha can be considered forest; and Ruvu South Forest Reserve (35,000 ha), of which only 10,000 ha can be considered forest. The north-eastern corner of Ruvu South comes within 1 km of the north-western end of Pugu and is only 2 km from the western edge of Kazimzumbwi. Forest composition varies considerably between the three reserves, largely due to the past removal of valued timber, but also reflecting differing soil and groundwater conditions. The only tall (35 m) emergents in Pugu are a few Antiaris toxicaria and Dialium holtzii in the Msimbazi valley. There are even fewer tall emergents in Kazimzumbwi, and Ruvu South is characterized by extensive Zanzibar–Inhambane scrub-forest that may be natural climax vegetation. There are also large stands of riparian forest in Ruvu South, as well as at least two swamps and areas of grass-covered flood-plain. The site has two major railway systems passing through it; the need to protect embankments and cuttings should help ensure some forest remains on the steeper slopes.Vikindu Forest Reserve (1,599 ha, much of which is plantation), to the south of Dar es Salaam, was known to hold Anthus sokokensis, but is so badly degraded that attempts to protect it were abandoned and it has not been included in this site.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. Circaetus fasciolatus is a low-density resident. Anthus sokokensis is known from Ruvu South, but can only be a rare, low-density species. Zoothera guttata is a regular passage migrant, particularly in May when birds are moving north from their southern breeding grounds. Sheppardia gunningi is a locally common resident at all three forests and Ruvu South may hold Tanzania’s largest population of this species. The forest birds of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi are well known. Those of the forest of Ruvu South have received far less attention, but the avifauna of the woodlands is better known and includes such localized species as Glaucidium capense, Neafrapus boehmi, Pachycoccyx audeberti, Campethera bennettii and Pyrenestes minor, as well as uncommon migrants such as Coturnix chinensis. Pogonocichla stellata is a regular migrant from montane habitats. Other visitors from higher altitudes have included Sarothrura elegans, Columba larvata, Coracina caesia, Zoothera gurneyi and Andropadus milanjensis. Regular Afrotropical migrants include large numbers of Cossypha natalensis (which is also a low-density resident) and small numbers of Pitta angolensis. Trichastoma rufipennis puguensis is locally endemic.

Non-bird biodiversity: A population of Loxodonta africana (EN) is associated with Ruvu South and may well move between this site and the northern approaches of the Selous Game Reserve.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Eastern Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus simplex resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown-breasted Barbet Pogonornis melanopterus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dickinson's Kestrel Falco dickinsoni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Southern Banded Snake-eagle Circaetus fasciolatus resident  2000  present  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Racquet-tailed Roller Coracias spatulatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Böhm's Bee-eater Merops boehmi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pale-billed Hornbill Lophoceros pallidirostris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pale Batis Batis soror resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chestnut-fronted Helmet-shrike Prionops scopifrons resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Four-coloured Bush-shrike Telophorus quadricolor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow Flycatcher Erythrocercus holochlorus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-bellied Tit Parus rufiventris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tabora Cisticola Cisticola angusticauda resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fischer's Greenbul Phyllastrephus fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tiny Greenbul Phyllastrephus debilis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kretschmer's Longbill Macrosphenus kretschmeri resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Black-bellied Glossy-starling Lamprotornis corruscus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Ground-thrush Zoothera guttata passage  2000  present  A1  Endangered 
Kurrichane Thrush Turdus libonyanus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
East Coast Akalat Sheppardia gunningi resident  2000  present  A1, A3  Near Threatened 
Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes neglectus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Zanzibar Bishop Euplectes nigroventris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Lesser Seedcracker Pyrenestes minor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sokoke Pipit Anthus sokokensis resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 

IBA Monitoring

2011 high unfavourable medium
Habitat
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - shifting agriculture happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications other ecosystem modifications happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution garbage & solid waste happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Forest   0 0 moderate (70-90%) moderate (70-90%) unfavourable

Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species)  A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserve 501,689 protected area contained by site 5,017  
Pugu Forest Reserve 239,421 protected area contained by site 2,394  
Pugu State Forest Reserve 2,200 protected area contained by site 2,200  
Ruvu South Forest Reserve 3,275,557 protected area contained by site 32,756  

Local conservation groups The local conservation group below is working to support conservation at this IBA.

Name Year formed
Community Conservation Banks Group (Cocoba) 2001

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland   31%
Forest   68%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
nature conservation and research -
urban/industrial/transport -
water management -

References Baker (1984), Baker and Baker (1992, 1994b), Baker and Howell (1992), Clarke and Dickinson (1995), Fottland (1996), Harvey and Howell (1987), Howell (1981), Mlingwa (1993, 1996a, b).

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kisarawe District Coastal Forests. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife