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Location Tanzania, Iringa,Morogoro
Central coordinates 36o 45.00' East  7o 50.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 199,000 ha
Altitude 400 - 2,576m
Year of IBA assessment 2001





Site description The National Park rises to 2,576 m at Mount Luhombero and 2,111 m at Mwanihana. The majority of the park is forested and the eastern escarpment has continuous forest across one of the largest altitudinal ranges in Africa. On the western margins the forest changes to a high grassland plateau, which may in part have been created by agriculturists and be maintained by fire. Before the advent of modern agriculture there was a continuous belt of woodland and forest from the Kilombero valley to the east to the top of the escarpment and on the mountain peaks further to the west. Vehicular access from the west to the high grassland plateau has always been difficult and, apart from the present village of Udekwa, few people have lived in the area in recent times. Average annual rainfall is 2,000–2,500 mm.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. No checklist exists for the National Park. Although there has been considerable fieldwork in the Udzungwa mountains in recent years, virtually none has been conducted within the park boundary since the area was gazetted. A few birds that are likely to occur have, therefore, not yet been recorded within the park boundary. There are, however, recent sightings of Xenoperdix udzungwensis from near Mount Luhombero, in the park. Circaetus fasciolatus is resident at low densities in low altitude forest at the foot of the east-facing escarpment. In the forest interior Swynnertonia swynnertoni is rare between 1,000–1,200 m, Modulatrix orostruthus occurs above 1,300 m, and Apalis chariessa is uncommon. Bathmocercus winifredae is locally frequent in forest undergrowth at 1,300–1,700 m. Three species of threatened sunbird occur, with Anthreptes rubritorques uncommon in forest interior above 850 m, Nectarinia rufipennis fairly common in forest at 600–1,700 m, and Nectarinia moreaui relatively common. Several species of global conservation concern have not been recorded from the park, but are expected to occur. These include Bubo vosseleri, Hirundo atrocaerulea, Sheppardia lowei and Cisticola njombe.The northward extension of the park to the southern bank of the Ruaha river includes Somali–Masai habitat associated with the dry central plateau and two Tanzanian endemics, Cosmopsarus unicolor and Agapornis personatus, occur. Fourteen species of the Somali–Masai biome and two of the East African Coast biome have been recorded; see Table 3. The combination of this dry country habitat with highland grassland, mountain forest and lowland forest and woodland ensures a high species-richness in the park.

Non-bird biodiversity: The park holds populations of six primates, of which Cercocebus galeritus sanjei and Procolobus badius gordonorum are endemic to the Udzungwa mountains. Loxodonta africana (EN) and Syncerus caffer (LR/cd) occur, and the forest holds Cephalophus monticola, C. natalensis (LR/cd) and C. spadix (VU).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Moustached Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus leucomystax resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Udzungwa Forest-partridge Xenoperdix udzungwensis resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Buteo oreophilus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Southern Banded Snake-eagle Circaetus fasciolatus resident  2000  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bubo vosseleri resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Not Recognised 
Caprimulgus poliocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fuelleborn's Boubou Laniarius fuelleborni resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Grey Cuckooshrike Coracina caesia resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Uhehe Fiscal Lanius marwitzi resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Crested-flycatcher Elminia albonotata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-lored Cisticola Cisticola nigriloris resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Churring Cisticola Cisticola njombe resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-winged Apalis Apalis chariessa resident  2000  present  A1, A2  Vulnerable 
Chapin's Apalis Apalis chapini resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Eastern Mountain Greenbul Andropadus nigriceps resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Shelley's Greenbul Andropadus masukuensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Stripe-cheeked Greenbul Andropadus milanjensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Tailorbird Artisornis metopias resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Bracken Warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mrs Moreau's Warbler Bathmocercus winifredae resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Mountain Flycatcher-warbler Chloropeta similis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus ruficapilla resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Warbler Sylvia lugens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Hill Babbler Pseudoalcippe abyssinica resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kenrick's Starling Poeoptera kenricki resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Orange Ground-thrush Zoothera gurneyi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-chested Alethe Alethe fuelleborni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dapple-throat Modulatrix orostruthus resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Swynnerton's Robin Swynnertonia swynnertoni resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Spot-throat Modulatrix stictigula resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sharpe's Akalat Sheppardia sharpei resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Iringa Akalat Sheppardia lowei resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Olive-flanked Robin-chat Cossypha anomala resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Dioptrornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Banded Sunbird Anthreptes rubritorques resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Olive-bellied Double-collared Sunbird Nectarinia fuelleborni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Moreau's Sunbird Nectarinia moreaui resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Rufous-winged Sunbird Nectarinia rufipennis resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bertrand's Weaver Ploceus bertrandi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Usambara Weaver Ploceus nicolli resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-faced Citril Serinus hypostictus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus whytii resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Not Recognised 
Kipengere Seedeater Serinus melanochrous resident  2000  unknown  A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Udzungwa Mountains National Park 19,900,000 is identical to site 199,000  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   3%
Shrubland   21%
Forest   74%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
other -
Notes: Occasional firewood collection.

References Burgess and Clarke (2000), Butyinski et al. (in press), Collar and Stuart (1985), Dinesen et al. (1994), Jensen and Brøgger-Jensen (1992), Lovett and Pócs (1993), Lovett and Wasser (1993), Lovett et al. (1988), Rodgers and Homewood (1982a), Stuart et al. (1987).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Udzungwa National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife