email a friend
printable version
Location Tanzania, Arusha,Dodoma
Central coordinates 36o 0.00' East  3o 50.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3, A4i
Area 260,000 ha
Altitude 1,100 m
Year of IBA assessment 2001





Site description Tarangire National Park is named after the Tarangire river which flows northwards through the park before discharging into Lake Burungi, which lies just outside the park boundary to the north-west. The rolling hills and swamps are typical of the Masai steppe country to the east and south. The northern sector of the park is dominated by Acacia tortilis woodland and scattered baobab Adansonia trees. Other habitat zones include AcaciaCommiphora and CombretumDalbergia woodland. The extensive swamps are seasonal and well-vegetated with little open water. Mature stands of Balanites aegyptiaca often dominate swamp edge and riverine vegetation. There are few large hills within the park; Lolkisale (2,132 m) lies just to the east with the Sangaiwe Hills and Mount Kwaraha (2,415 m) beyond the western border. Average rainfall is only 600 mm/year.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. There is no species list for the park; the total is likely to exceed 450 species. Globally threatened species include Falco naumanni, which occurs in flocks of hundreds in April, following the start of the rains when invertebrate food-supplies are abundant and the park provides secure roost-sites. A single record of Apalis karamojae from 1998 may represent a range extension for this species. Parus fringillinus breeds at low densities in the south-east of the park, the western edge of the range of its central plateau population. Three Tanzanian endemics, Agapornis personatus, Cosmopsarus unicolor and Histurgops ruficauda, have substantial populations within the park and a fourth, Agapornis fischeri, is a regular visitor. Of special interest are the relatively high numbers of Anthus caffer, a local and rare species in East Africa. Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis is reasonably common, with up to 16 adult birds having been seen on the edge of Silale swamp. Although the park is only 30 km from the wall of the Eastern Rift, it is nevertheless outside the volcanic belt and forms the western limit for many birds typical of the Somali–Masai biome.

Non-bird biodiversity: An estimated 3,000 elephant Loxodonta africana (EN) are present in the Tarangire ecosystem. Panthera leo (VU) are resident while Lycaon pictus (EN) are frequently observed in the south-east and Acinonyx jubatus (VU) are frequent visitors. The population of the rhino Diceros bicornis (CR) was wiped out by poachers by the mid-1980s.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Trachyphonus darnaudii resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Black-throated Barbet Tricholaema melanocephala resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-and-yellow Barbet Trachyphonus erythrocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Vulturine Guineafowl Acryllium vulturinum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-necked Francolin Pternistis leucoscepus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Marabou Leptoptilos crumenifer winter  10,000 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni passage  present  A1  Least Concern 
Eastern Chanting-goshawk Melierax poliopterus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-crested Bustard Lophotis gindiana resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola winter  2,000 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Black-faced Sandgrouse Pterocles decoratus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fischer's Lovebird Agapornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Yellow-collared Lovebird Agapornis personatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-bellied Parrot Poicephalus rufiventris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Go-away-bird Criniferoides leucogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar Caprimulgus donaldsoni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Von der Decken's Hornbill Tockus deckeni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rosy-patched Bush-shrike Rhodophoneus cruentus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Long-tailed Fiscal Lanius cabanisi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Taita Fiscal Lanius dorsalis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-throated Tit Parus fringillinus resident  2000  present  A1, A3  Least Concern 
Mouse-coloured Penduline-tit Anthoscopus musculus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pink-breasted Lark Mirafra poecilosterna resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Short-tailed Lark Pseudalaemon fremantlii resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Tiny Cisticola Cisticola nanus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Karamoja Apalis Apalis karamojae resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Grey Wren-warbler Camaroptera simplex resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Banded Warbler Sylvia boehmi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Northern Pied-babbler Turdoides hypoleuca resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hildebrandt's Starling Lamprotornis hildebrandti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ashy Starling Cosmopsarus unicolor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Grey Flycatcher Bradornis microrhynchus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kenya Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes orientalis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-tailed Weaver Histurgops ruficaudus resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Swahili Sparrow Passer suahelicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-headed Buffalo-weaver Dinemellia dinemelli resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Speke's Weaver Ploceus spekei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-capped Cordonbleu Uraeginthus cyanocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple Grenadier Uraeginthus ianthinogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-rumped Waxbill Estrilda charmosyna resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-headed Silverbill Lonchura griseicapilla resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Steel-blue Whydah Vidua hypocherina resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Straw-tailed Whydah Vidua fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Golden Pipit Tmetothylacus tenellus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pangani Longclaw Macronyx aurantiigula resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kenya Grosbeak-canary Serinus buchanani resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Canary Serinus dorsostriatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Somali Golden-breasted Bunting Emberiza poliopleura resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2011 very high favourable high
  Habitat
Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - agro-industry farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Agricultural expansion and intensification wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - small dams likely in long term (beyond 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications other ecosystem modifications happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution air-borne pollutants - smog happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution excess energy - light pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution excess energy - noise pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution excess energy - thermal pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high

Grassland   0 0 good (> 90%) good (> 90%) favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  high 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Tarangire National Park 28,500,000 is identical to site 260,000  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   16%
Grassland   83%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -

References Baker (1997), Lamprey (1963, 1964), Tarangire Conservation Project (1997).

Contribute  Please click here to help BirdLife conserve the world's birds - your data for this IBA and others are vital for helping protect the environment.

Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Tarangire National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife