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Location Tanzania, Arusha
Central coordinates 35o 50.00' East  3o 40.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Area 109,699 ha
Altitude 960 - 2,040m
Year of IBA assessment 2001





Site description The site encompasses Lake Manyara National Park, the part of the lake which falls outside the park and the Marang Forest Reserve on the escarpment above the park. Lake Manyara is 40 km long by 13 km wide and is oriented almost north–south along the western margin of the Eastern Rift, some 85 km south of Lake Natron (TZ031). The escarpment rises 900 m above the level of the lake leaving a narrow western shore of AcaciaCommiphora woodland with sizeable stands of groundwater forest dominated by Trichilia roka with Croton macrostachyus and Cordia africana. The lake is generally saline (pH levels vary with rainfall) with areas of fresher water where perennial streams flow into the lake. The largest of these is the Simba river which drains from the Ngorongoro Highlands to the north-west and the Makayuni river which flows in from the east. There are extensive swamps in the north and smaller ones elsewhere associated with the minor rivers flowing off the escarpment. The level of the lake fluctuates considerably between seasons and between years and is occasionally reduced to a relatively small saline pool. On the escarpment, the Marang forest is composed of montane vegetation dominated by Olea capensis, Albizia gummifera, Podocarpus latifolius and Macaranga sp. The drier plateau forest contains Bersama abyssinica and Clausena anisata with Croton sp. and Olea africana as canopy dominants.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. The groundwater forest to the north of the lake, and largely within the National Park, is a well-known breeding site for thousands of Pelecanus rufescens and Mycteria ibis along with much smaller numbers of Leptoptilos crumeniferus and Ardea cinerea. The lake holds huge numbers of Phoenicopterus minor with nearly 2 million birds recorded in 1991. However, only 78,320 birds were counted in 1994. Observations of Porzana porzana and Anthus cervinus suggest the muddy margins of the lake provide important feeding habitat for long-distant migrants. Histurgops ruficauda is locally common to the east of the lake, but uncommon within the park, especially during periods of high water when open grassland is inundated.Several other species of global conservation concern have been reported: Ardeola idae is infrequently recorded the northern swamps; Falco naumanni occurs on the plains east of the lake, with a flock of 400 recorded in 1961, and Circus macrourus are uncommon in the same area; a single Falco fasciinucha was recorded from the park in 1961.

Non-bird biodiversity: There is an important population of Loxodonta africana (EN) within the National Park and Marang Forest Reserve. There are a few prides of Panthera leo (VU) within the National Park.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Trachyphonus darnaudii resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Moustached Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus leucomystax resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-throated Barbet Tricholaema melanocephala resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Red-and-yellow Barbet Trachyphonus erythrocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-necked Francolin Pternistis leucoscepus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata winter  1995  4,650 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus winter  40,000 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor winter  1991  1,900,000 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Yellow-billed Stork Mycteria ibis winter  1995  1,020 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus winter  1991  200,000 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Buteo oreophilus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Eastern Chanting-goshawk Melierax poliopterus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Buff-crested Bustard Lophotis gindiana resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Himantopus himantopus winter  1995  8,367 individuals  A4i  Not Recognised 
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta winter  1995  4,940 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Chestnut-banded Plover Charadrius pallidus winter  1995  619 individuals  A4i  Near Threatened 
Caspian Plover Charadrius asiaticus winter  1995  3,302 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis winter  1995  2,441 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Little Stint Calidris minuta winter  1995  78,675 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Ruff Calidris pugnax winter  1995  45,486 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Sterna nilotica winter  1995  1,566 individuals  A4i  Not Recognised 
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus winter  1995  3,283 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Black-faced Sandgrouse Pterocles decoratus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fischer's Lovebird Agapornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Near Threatened 
Yellow-collared Lovebird Agapornis personatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-bellied Parrot Poicephalus rufiventris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Go-away-bird Criniferoides leucogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nyanza Swift Apus niansae resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater Merops oreobates resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Von der Decken's Hornbill Tockus deckeni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rosy-patched Bush-shrike Rhodophoneus cruentus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Cuckooshrike Coracina caesia resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Long-tailed Fiscal Lanius cabanisi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Taita Fiscal Lanius dorsalis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-winged Lark Mirafra hypermetra resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Grey Wren-warbler Camaroptera simplex resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Eastern Mountain Greenbul Andropadus nigriceps resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Flycatcher-warbler Chloropeta similis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Banded Warbler Sylvia boehmi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Hill Babbler Pseudoalcippe abyssinica resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Northern Pied-babbler Turdoides hypoleuca resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-breasted White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Hildebrandt's Starling Lamprotornis hildebrandti resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Ashy Starling Cosmopsarus unicolor resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sharpe's Starling Cinnyricinclus sharpii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Orange Ground-thrush Zoothera gurneyi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive-flanked Robin-chat Cossypha anomala resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Rueppell's Robin-chat Cossypha semirufa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Grey Flycatcher Bradornis microrhynchus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Dioptrornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kenya Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes orientalis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bronze Sunbird Nectarinia kilimensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Golden-winged Sunbird Nectarinia reichenowi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rufous-tailed Weaver Histurgops ruficaudus resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
White-headed Buffalo-weaver Dinemellia dinemelli resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Speke's Weaver Ploceus spekei resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue-capped Cordonbleu Uraeginthus cyanocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Purple Grenadier Uraeginthus ianthinogaster resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-rumped Waxbill Estrilda charmosyna resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-headed Silverbill Lonchura griseicapilla resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Steel-blue Whydah Vidua hypocherina resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Straw-tailed Whydah Vidua fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Golden Pipit Tmetothylacus tenellus resident  2000  unknown  A3  Least Concern 
Pangani Longclaw Macronyx aurantiigula resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-faced Citril Serinus hypostictus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-bellied Canary Serinus dorsostriatus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus striolatus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Thick-billed Seedeater Serinus burtoni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  1991-1995  1,000,000-2,499,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2009 very high very unfavourable high
Habitat
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing happening now whole area/population (>90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now whole area/population (>90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Geological events avalanches/landslides past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Geological events earthquakes/tsunamis past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Geological events volcanic eruptions past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - unspecified species past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Invasive and other problematic species and genes problematic native species/diseases - unspecified species past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: large scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) happening now whole area/population (>90%) moderate to rapid deterioration very high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - herbicides and pesticides happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - nutrient loads happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now whole area/population (>90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now whole area/population (>90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Wetlands (inland)   0 0 poor (40-69%) poor (40-69%) very unfavourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  The conservation measures needed for the site are being comprehensively and effectively implemented  high 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Lake Manyara National Park 6,487,000 protected area contained by site 64,870  
Lake Manyara National Park UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve 2,833,000 protected area contained by site 28,330  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   6%
Wetlands (inland)   37%
Shrubland   10%
Grassland   1%
Forest   44%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
forestry -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
water management -

References Baker (1997), Greenway and Vesey-Fitzgerald (1969), Mwalyosi and Yanda (1989), Prins (in prep.), Ruelling (1991), Snelson (1986).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Lake Manyara. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014

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