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Location Tanzania, Arusha
Central coordinates 36o 47.82' East  3o 15.48' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3, A4i, A4iii
Area 42,000 ha
Altitude 1,400 - 4,565m
Year of IBA assessment 2001





Site description Arusha National Park covers the eastern portion of Mount Meru and extends 16 km to the east of the mountain. The site lies to the east of the Rift Valley and to the west of Mount Kilimanjaro (TZ003). The park encompasses a wide variety of habitats including montane forest similar to that on Mount Kilimanjaro, characterized by Diospyros abyssinica, Olea welwitschii, O. hochstetteri and O. africana, and several freshwater and alkaline lakes, ponds and swamps. The IBA also includes lower and mid-altitude forest lying outside the park in Forest Reserves.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. The site is known to support at least 411 species, including Ardeola idae, as a non-breeding visitor in small numbers, and one species of the Serengeti plains EBA, as well as 11 species of the Somali–Masai biome (see Tables 2 and 3). The National Park is the only protected area utilized by the dwindling East African population of Oxyura maccoa which winters on the large alkaline lakes and breeds in the small, secluded freshwater ponds and swamps. The mountain streams hold Anas sparsa and the towering cliffs support a large population of Apus niansae and two pairs of Gypaetus barbatus. Apus horus and Merops bullockoides share nest-sites along the riverbanks, while the swamp on the floor of Ngurdoto Crater provides a safe nest-site for Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis. There are important populations of montane forest birds in the natural forest including Poicephalus gulielmi, Apaloderma vittatum and Linurgus olivaceus.

Non-bird biodiversity: A population of Loxodonta africana (EN) occurs in the park, while Lycaon pictus (EN) is an occasional visitor. The commonest duiker in the forest is Cephalophus harveyi (LR/cd).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Moustached Green Tinkerbird Pogoniulus leucomystax resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Maccoa Duck Oxyura maccoa non-breeding  1995  427 individuals  A4i  Near Threatened 
Southern Pochard Netta erythrophthalma non-breeding  1995  800 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis non-breeding  1995  623 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor non-breeding  1992  220,000 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Buteo oreophilus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Dusky Turtle-dove Streptopelia lugens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Fischer's Lovebird Agapornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Hartlaub's Turaco Tauraco hartlaubi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Caprimulgus poliocephalus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nyanza Swift Apus niansae resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater Merops oreobates resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-throated Tit Parus fringillinus resident  2000  present  A1  Least Concern 
Hunter's Cisticola Cisticola hunteri resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Eastern Mountain Greenbul Andropadus nigriceps resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Stripe-cheeked Greenbul Andropadus milanjensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bracken Warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Mountain Flycatcher-warbler Chloropeta similis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Brown Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Hill Babbler Pseudoalcippe abyssinica resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sharpe's Starling Cinnyricinclus sharpii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abbott's Starling Cinnyricinclus femoralis resident  2000  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kenrick's Starling Poeoptera kenricki resident  2000  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Orange Ground-thrush Zoothera gurneyi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rueppell's Robin-chat Cossypha semirufa resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Moorland Chat Cercomela sordida resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher Dioptrornis fischeri resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Nectarinia mediocris resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tacazze Sunbird Nectarinia tacazze resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bronze Sunbird Nectarinia kilimensis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Golden-winged Sunbird Nectarinia reichenowi resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Abyssinian Crimson-wing Cryptospiza salvadorii resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-faced Citril Serinus hypostictus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Serinus striolatus resident  2000  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Thick-billed Seedeater Serinus burtoni resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus resident  2000  present  A3  Least Concern 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  1992  100,000-499,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2009 very high unfavourable high
Habitat
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Agricultural expansion and intensification marine and freshwater aquaculture - subsistence/artisinal aquaculture likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather drought likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather storms and floods likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather temperature extremes likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Energy production and mining oil and gas drilling past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Energy production and mining renewable energy likely in long term (beyond 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Geological events volcanic eruptions likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance war, civil unrest and military exercises past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species direct mortality of trigger species - hunting and trapping past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species direct mortality of trigger species - persecution/control past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Over-exploitation, persecution and control of species habitat effects - gathering plants likely in long term (beyond 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution agricultural and forestry effluents and practices past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution air-borne pollutants past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution domestic and urban waste water past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution garbage and solid waste past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution industrial and military effluents past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution light pollution past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution noise pollution happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution thermal pollution past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Shrubland   0 0 moderate (70-90%) moderate (70-90%) unfavourable

Phoeniconaias minor Lesser Flamingo 220000 18000 mature individuals 9 very unfavourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  high 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Arusha National Park 3,284,000 protected area contained by site 32,840  

Habitats

IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Shrubland   12%
Forest   87%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
forestry -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
water management -

References Baker (1997), Beesley (1972), Neuman (1992), TANAPA (1987).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Arusha National Park and vicinity. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2014

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