|Central coordinates||8o 48.00' East 33o 26.00' North|
|IBA criteria||A1, A4i|
|Altitude||20 - 40m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2001|
Site description This semi-permanent wetland is situated 15 km west of Douz, 5 km from Douz Laâla (TN040), and consists of a depression holding brackish water. It is bordered to the east by the Ghidma oasis and by sand-dunes to the west and south. The site is fed with water by drainage from the nearby oases, and possibly from freshwater springs. Water depth varies from 1 m in winter to less than 30 cm in summer. Phragmites communis and Tamarix africana are found along the shores, and it has some of the densest vegetation of any of the Djerid oases.
Key Biodiversity See Box for key species. Ghidma—like Sebkhet Nouaïel (site TN039), Douz Laâla (TN040) and Snam (TN041)—is a small wetland adjoining the small oases near the Chott Djerid south of Kebili. These wetlands (often called ‘guelta’ rather than ‘sebkha’ by local people) are normally small and situated just outside the oases. They are fed by run-off of artesian, fairly saline, oasis-water after it has been used for irrigation. In some cases, this artesian water is apparently supplemented by local springs, so that the water is fresher and the vegetation thicker, and water may last throughout the summer; in most however, the water evaporates and the site becomes dry in summer. These sites are very important nationally for wintering waterbird populations: in particular, it seems that the Tunisian breeding population of Marmaronetta angustirostris winters in these oasis sites, together with good numbers of Aythya nyroca, Plegadis falcinellus, and a variety of waders, notably such species as Charadrius dubius, Tringa glareola and Philomachus pugnax, which generally cross the Sahara in winter. The sites are of major importance in spring for northward-moving trans-Saharan migrants of all kinds, which need food and drink after their desert crossing. In some years, especially wet ones, the sites may also be of importance for breeding species, including Tadorna ferruginea and Marmaronetta angustirostris. In addition, six species of the Sahara–Sindian biome have been recorded in and around these small wetlands (see Table 2).Ghidma is a particularly good example of this kind of wetland. It is a breeding site for Tadorna ferruginea and Fulica atra. Other waterbirds include Casmerodius albus, Ardea purpurea, Himantopus himantopus, Gallinula chloropus, Charadrius dubius and C. alexandrinus.
Non-bird biodiversity: Both the ungulates Gazella dorcas (VU) and Gazella leptoceros (EN) have been recorded.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris||breeding||-||60 breeding pairs||-||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris||winter||-||150-200 individuals||-||A1, A4i||Vulnerable|
|Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca||winter||-||common||-||A1||Near Threatened|
|Medium - based upon reliable but incomplete / partially representative data|
|Biological resource use||fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Biological resource use||hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - intentional use (species being assessed is the target)||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Climate change and severe weather||temperature extremes||likely in long term (beyond 4 years)||majority/most of area/population (50-90%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Invasive & other problematic species, genes & diseases||problematic native species/diseases - unspecified species||happening now||some of area/population (10-49%)||slow but significant deterioration||medium|
|Marmaronetta angustirostris||Marbled Teal||1||22||breeding pairs||100||favourable|
|Marmaronetta angustirostris||Marbled Teal||60||11||individuals||19||very unfavourable|
|Aythya nyroca||Ferruginous Duck||1||54||individuals||100||favourable|
|Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation||No management plan exists but the management planning process has begun||Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity||medium|
Local conservation groups The local conservation group below is working to support conservation at this IBA.
|AAO/ Tunisian Ornithology Group (GTO)||2000|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
|Notes: Cutting reeds.|
References Gaultier (1988c), Hughes et al. (1997).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Ghidma. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/07/2016
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