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Location Namibia, Erongo
Central coordinates 14o 31.00' East  22o 59.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A4i, A4iii
Area 4,000 ha
Altitude 0 - 5m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Site description Once famous for its whales, hence the name, Walvis Bay is a large modern town and Namibia’s only port. It is one of the country’s four Ramsar Sites and is located on the Kuiseb river delta, approximately halfway down the Namib desert coast, some 55 km north of Sandwich Harbour (NA014). The Kuiseb river no longer flows into its own delta, having been dammed off in 1962 to prevent flooding of the town. The wetlands south and west of the town make up the natural areas of Walvis Bay lagoon, and include intertidal mudflats and the eastern half of a 10-km-long north–south sand-spit called Pelican Point; this spit provides protection for the bay from Atlantic swells. A lagoon lies at the southern end of the open water. A salt-works was built at the southern end of this lagoon; it reduces the tidal sweep and possibly adds to increased siltation. Included in this IBA are the artificially flooded evaporation ponds of the saltworks, as well as the occasionally flooded areas to the south of the saltworks. The only terrestrial plants occur in the extensive riverine vegetation of the delta and the ephemeral river. The bay is a tourist attraction because of the proximity of 100,000 birds, mainly flamingos, to public areas. Rainfall is sporadic and averages about 15 mm per year, while precipitation in the form of coastal fog is common.

Key Biodiversity See Box for key species. In terms of numbers and species of birds, this is the most important coastal wetland in southern Africa, and is probably one of the three most important coastal wetlands in Africa. This area regularly supports over 100,000 birds in summer (maximum 162,000) and 50,000 in winter. Most birds (c.90% by number) which use the wetland in summer are non-breeding intra-African and Palearctic migrants. The area is vitally important for Palearctic waders and flamingos, which make up the majority of the numbers. Between 80–90% of the subregion’s flamingos winter here, utilizing especially the evaporation ponds of the saltworks, or at Sandwich Harbour (NA014). As many as 16 species occur in numbers exceeding 1% of the relevant biogeographical population.

Several species number in their thousands, including Phoenicopterus ruber and P. minor, Calidris ferruginea, C. minuta, Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea, and significant numbers of the global populations of Charadrius pallidus (60% of the world population) and Podiceps nigricollis occur. Other common species include Haematopus moquini, breeding Sterna balaenarum, Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius marginatus, Arenaria interpres, Calidris alba, Recurvirostra avosetta, breeding Sterna caspia, S. bergii, S. sandvicensis and most of southern Africa’s Chlidonias niger. The site also holds large proportions of the southern African populations of Calidris canutus, Limosa lapponica, Numenius arquata and N. phaeopus. Smaller numbers of Pelecanus onocrotalus, Anas capensis and Charadrius hiaticula occur. This very high species richness and abundance is probably due to nutrients from the highly productive Lüderitz upwelling cell being brought north by the cold Benguela Current and being blown inshore by year-round winds.

Non-bird biodiversity: Whales, including Megaptera novaeangliae (VU) and Eubalaena australis (LR/cd), which once brought their calves into the sheltered waters, and were exterminated by early whalers, are still sometimes seen at sea. In recent years the rare cetacean Caperea marginata has occurred, while Lagenorhynchos obscurus (DD), Tursiops truncatus (DD) and the poorly known Benguela endemic Cephalorhynchus heavisidii (DD) are frequent visitors.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis winter  2,050-4,030 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus winter  11,350-31,800 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor winter  14,200-33,060 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
African Oystercatcher Haematopus moquini winter  110-204 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta winter  818-2,340 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola winter  816-3,360 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Chestnut-banded Plover Charadrius pallidus winter  1,810-6,040 individuals  A4i  Near Threatened 
White-fronted Plover Charadrius marginatus winter  1,010-1,610 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres winter  2,110-4,420 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Sanderling Calidris alba winter  2,110-7,360 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea winter  11,180-22,700 individuals  A4i  Near Threatened 
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus winter  1,710-5,170 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia winter  70-230 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii winter  350-1,660 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Common Tern Sterna hirundo winter  5,410-23,610 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum winter  60-265 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
A4iii Species group - waterbirds winter  50,000-99,999 individuals  unknown  A4iii   

IBA Monitoring

2001 high not assessed not assessed
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Pollution industrial & military effluents - oil spills happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Dorob National Park Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 814,558 protected area contains site 4,000  
Walvis Bay Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar) 12,600 protected area contains site 4,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Rocky areas   36%
Grassland   63%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
urban/industrial/transport -

References Berry (1976a), Boyer (1988), Curry (1997), Hockey et al. (1992), Jacobson et al. (1995), Noli-Peard and Williams (1991), Simmons (1991, 1992, 1996a, 1997), Ward (1997), Wearne (1997), Whitelaw et al. (1978), Williams (1987, 1988).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Walvis Bay. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016

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