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Location Namibia, Erongo
Central coordinates 14o 31.00' East  22o 48.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A4i
Area 2,100 ha
Altitude 0 - 20m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Site description This coastal IBA is situated in central Namibia, on the border of the Namib desert, between the harbour town of Walvis Bay and Swakopmund. It is essentially a 30 km by 0.7 km stretch of beach comprising mainly sand, with isolated rocky outcrops forming less than 5% of its length. Two small resorts occur in an otherwise uninhabited section of coast, namely Langstrand and Dolphin Strand. Rainfall here is highly variable, averaging about 15 mm per year, but precipitation from coastal fog occurs during one out of every 3 days on average. Line fishing is common along the northern sections, while swimmers and surfers are concentrated around the two resorts. The area is the focus of an intense oceanic upwelling system that begins in Lüderitz, where nutrients are brought to the surface, and algal and zooplankton blooms form as the water is swept north by the Benguela Current. Between Walvis Bay and Henties Bay inshore winds push large quantities of nutrients inland, supporting an abundance of invertebrates on the sandy and rocky shores. Invertebrate densities on both shore-types are higher than any other beach in southern Africa. Furthermore, the effect of the Pelican Point sand-spit is to refract waves around and into the bay, concentrating the nutrients still further on these shores. Little vegetation occurs, although washed-up kelp is seen on some sections and there provides a rich microhabitat for kelp flies and associated shorebirds. Associated with this beach is the only bulge along an otherwise straight beach, known as Caution Reef (or Patrysburg). This is an area of sandflats immediately behind a shingle beach, rising to a raised plateau overlooking the shore about 600 m inland. The road between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay acts as a boundary to the area c.1 km inland.

Key Biodiversity See Box for key species. This site is not only the richest shoreline in terms of shorebird density anywhere in southern Africa, but it supports the densest colony of breeding Sterna balaenarum known. Surveys 20 years ago showed the beach to hold peak shorebird numbers of 448 birds/km. Similar densities were recorded in 1996 (451 birds/km). Individual 10-km sections, including the rocky shores between Caution Reef and Swakopmund, peak even higher at 770 birds/km. Totals for this 30-km stretch of beach therefore exceed 13,000 shorebirds of c.31 species, most of which are Palearctic migrants. The most abundant waders (Charadrii) are Arenaria interpres, Calidris ferruginea, Pluvialis squatarola and Numenius phaeopus. Breeding Sterna balaenarum occur mainly at Caution Reef and breed from October through February. Densities within a 2 km² study area have exceeded 120 nesting pairs or 60 pairs/km². This is considerably higher than the modal density in Namibia of about 1 pair/km². Other birds breed further inland at lower densities. Breeding and ringing studies have continued since 1995. Large numbers of Sterna hirundo/S. paradisaea flock here, and large numbers of cormorants, which use the artificial guano platform at the southern end of this IBA, sometimes roost on the beach.

Non-bird biodiversity: In recent years the rare cetacean Caperea marginata (five records) has occurred or been stranded on these beaches, while Lagenorhynchos obscurus (DD), Tursiops truncatus (DD) and Cephalorhynchus heavisidii (DD) are frequent visitors.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres winter  5,211 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus winter  1,688 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum breeding  120 breeding pairs  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum winter  250 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Walvisbaai Private Reserve 72 protected area contained by site 72  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Rocky areas   50%
Grassland   15%
Desert   34%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
fisheries/aquaculture -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References Braby (1995), Braby et al. (in press), Summers et al. (1987), Simmons et al. (1998), Wearne (1997), Whitelaw et al. (1978).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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