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Location Namibia, Hardap
Central coordinates 15o 23.00' East  24o 37.00' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3, A4i
Area 4,976,800 ha
Altitude 0 - 2,000m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Site description This massive conservation area, one of the largest in Africa, incorporates a large portion of the Namib desert, which some authorities consider the oldest desert in the world. The park comprises gravel-plains of intensely weathered rock, with some gypsum crusts, calcrete and desert pavement. River canyons are intermittent and sand-filled. Extensive sand-dunes, which form a dune sea, run parallel to the coastline for up to 120 km inland. The Naukluft mountains are part of the high-rising escarpment that marks the western edge of the interior highlands of Namibia. The flat, plateau-like summit of the mountain complex is separated from the adjacent highland plateau to the south by impressive near-vertical cliffs, while in the north-west and west its highest peaks loom almost 1,000 m above the plains of the Namib desert.

The Naukluft forms part of a large triangular plateau, which is higher than the main Namibian Plateau and separated from it by almost unbroken cliffs, 500 m high. The plateau consists mainly of dolomite and limestone formations. Dissolution of the dolomite and limestone by waters over many millennia has given rise to karstification of the plateau and an extensive underground drainage system. In some of the deeply incised kloofs, discharge from this underground reservoir occurs as crystal-clear springs and streams. Soils are shallow except on the less pronounced slopes. The southern portion of these mountains holds the Sesriem Canyon, where the Tsauchab river has carved a spectacular gorge into the gravels deposited some 15–18 million years ago. It is thought that the Tsauchab once flowed to the Atlantic Ocean, but that it was blocked by encroaching sand-dunes some 70 km inland approximately 60,000 years ago. Over thousands of years the Tsauchab river has, nevertheless, managed to keep open parts of its course, ending at Sossusvlei, a clay pan 65 km south-west of Sesriem.

The sand-dune desert has its origin at the mouth of the Orange river, eventually coalescing into a vast sea of dunes north of Lüderitz. The sand sea is abruptly halted by the Kuiseb river, which forms an impenetrable barrier, 400 km to the north.Vegetation is extremely sparse on the shifting dunes of the sand-sea; occasionally grassy pockets of dune grass Stipagrostis develop in more stable slacks. Following good rainfall, grasses also develop on the gravel-plains, which are otherwise mostly devoid of cover. Plants that can tolerate the extreme aridity on a permanent basis include the lichens and succulents that dominate on inselbergs and pegmatite dykes, making use of moisture in the fog and dew. The plains hold the bizarre Welwitschia mirabilis, the only species of its family.The riverbeds near the coast are colonized by Tamarix, Lycium and Salsola and inland by a denser growth of Acacia and Faidherbia. The fruit of the !Nara Acanthosicyos horridus, which occurs in the Kuiseb river valley, is a valuable source of water and nutrition in the desert. The vegetation of the Naukluft mountains is complex and relatively diverse, owing to the wide variation in aspect and soil.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. The park is rich in raptors, and Sagittarius serpentarius, Gyps africanus, Torgos tracheliotus, Aquila rapax, Polemaetus bellicosus and Falco rupicoloides are very common. Trigonoceps occipitalis, Circus macrourus, C. maurus and Falco naumanni are less common. In the east, the Naukluft mountains hold breeding Aquila verreauxii, Ciconia nigra and probably a few pairs of Bubo capensis. Several characteristic species of the Namib–Karoo biome reach the northern limit of the distributions in the southern portion of the park, including Eupodotis vigorsii, Sylvia layardi, Eremomela gregalis, Euryptila subcinnamomea, Serinus alario and Eremopterix australis.

Other species more typical of northern Namibia penetrate the northern section of the park around the Naukluft mountains, including Francolinus hartlaubi, Poicephalus rueppellii, Tockus monteiri, Namibornis herero, Achaetops pycnopygius, Monticola brevipes and Lanioturdus torquatus. Typical desert-dune and gravel-plain species include Ardeotis kori, Neotis ludwigii, Eupodotis rueppellii, Cursorius rufus, C. temminckii, Rhinoptilus africanus, Certhilauda erythrochlamys, Ammomanes grayi, Eremalauda starki, Cercomela schlegelii, C. tractrac and Malcorus pectoralis.The coastline holds roosting and foraging areas for Haematopus moquini, Sterna balaenarum, Phalacrocorax neglectus, P. coronatus, and large numbers of Sterna hirundo. The coastline also holds the only mainland breeding colony of Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. When wet, Sossusvlei holds several waterbird species, including flamingos.

Non-bird biodiversity: This park supports many species that are endemic to Namibia and to the small portion of Angola into which the Namib desert extends. Unique threatened or endemic plants include Aloe namibensis, A. sladeniana, A. karasbergensis, Welwitschia mirabilis, Lithops schwantesii, Trichocaulon spp. and Myrothamnus flabellifolius. Interesting endemic invertebrates include Onymacris unguicularis and Lepidochora spp. Reptiles include Palmatogecko rangei, Aporosaura anchietae and Bitis peringueyi. Endemic and/or threatened mammals include Eremitalpa granti (VU), Gerbillarus tytonis, Acinonyx jubatus (VU) and Equus zebra hartmannae (EN).

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Hartlaub's Francolin Pternistis hartlaubi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Penguin Spheniscus demersus resident  present  A1  Endangered 
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor winter  present  A1  Near Threatened 
Bank Cormorant Phalacrocorax neglectus winter  100-200 individuals  A1, A4i  Endangered 
Crowned Cormorant Microcarbo coronatus winter  50-150 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Ludwig's Bustard Neotis ludwigii resident  1998  present  A3  Endangered 
Rüppell's Bustard Heterotetrax rueppelii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Karoo Bustard Heterotetrax vigorsii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
African Oystercatcher Haematopus moquini winter  30-50 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus winter  250-350 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Common Tern Sterna hirundo winter  10,000 individuals  A4i  Least Concern 
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum winter  560 individuals  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum breeding  1998  220 breeding pairs  unknown  A1, A4i  Near Threatened 
Rüppell's Parrot Poicephalus rueppellii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Chatshrike Lanioturdus torquatus resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Dune Lark Certhilauda erythrochlamys resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Gray's Lark Ammomanes grayi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Stark's Lark Eremalauda starki resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-eared Sparrow-lark Eremopterix australis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Barred Wren-warbler Camaroptera fasciolata resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kopje Warbler Euryptila subcinnamomea resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-rumped Eremomela Eremomela gregalis resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Layard's Warbler Sylvia layardi resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Rockrunner Achaetops pycnopygius resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pale-winged Starling Onychognathus nabouroup resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Kalahari Scrub-robin Erythropygia paena resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Herero Chat Namibornis herero resident  1998  present  A2, A3  Least Concern 
Karoo Chat Cercomela schlegelii resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Tractrac Chat Cercomela tractrac resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Sociable Weaver Philetairus socius resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 
Black-headed Canary Serinus alario resident  1998  present  A3  Least Concern 

IBA Monitoring

2013 high near favourable low

Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Desert   0 0 good (> 90%) moderate (70-90%) near favourable
Rocky areas   0 0 good (> 90%) moderate (70-90%) near favourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  Unknown  Some limited conservation initiatives are in place  low 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Namib Naukluft National Park 4,976,800 protected area contains site 4,976,800  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Rocky areas   26%
Grassland   12%
Desert   61%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
nature conservation and research -

References Boyer and Bridgeford (1988), Brown (1987), Jarvis and Robertson (1997), Olivier and Olivier (1993), Simmons et al. (1998).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Namib-Naukluft Park. Downloaded from on 24/10/2016

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