|Central coordinates||14o 15.00' East 17o 24.00' South|
|IBA criteria||A1, A2, A3, A4i|
|Altitude||1,000 - 1,500m|
|Year of IBA assessment||2001|
Site description The Cunene river, like the Orange river, forms an east–west linear oasis of permanent freshwater across the northern Namib desert before reaching the Atlantic Ocean. It is a warm-water river, with highly variable annual flow volumes differing as much as 14-fold between and high and low years. It also varies within years by as much as 11-fold between high flow in April and low flow in October. The lower Cunene is the 340 km stretch of river that forms the border between Namibia and Angola. The mouth is considered to be the lower part of the river within 4 km of the coast. Flow to the sea is never closed off, even though it may naturally slow to a trickle in September–October. Epupa Falls, about 190 km upstream, is the last major waterfall along this very steep river that flows for 1,050 km from source (in the Angolan highlands) to mouth. It also marks the proposed site for a hydroelectric dam, which would produce a body of water c.75 km in length. At present hydro-power in Namibia is only generated from the diversion weir located at Ruacana, the end point of this IBA. Either side of the river, rocky cliffs, wind-stripped plains and dune-fields mark its progress through the hyper-arid desert. The river is typically confined to rocky gorges for most of its 340 km journey along the border of Angola.Riparian and marginal (mainly Phragmites) vegetation is confined to narrow strips along the riverbank. Where the river widens and braids into several channels, or mist generated from waterfalls creates a relatively humid environment, riverine vegetation occurs in profusion. Hyphaene palms are common and luxuriant at Epupa, attracting peripheral species found nowhere else in Namibia. On surrounding hillsides, mopane and Commiphora dominate. Nomadic pastoralists, the Ova-Himba, descendants of the Herero, number about 5,000, and are reliant on the river for water in the dry season. Extremely high temperatures (more than 40°C) are common here, and the river’s effect as an oasis in a hostile environment then becomes most apparent.
|Species||Season||Period||Population estimate||Quality of estimate||IBA Criteria||IUCN Category|
|Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum||passage||1998||2,000-2,400 individuals||medium||A1, A4i||Near Threatened|
|Rueppell's Parrot Poicephalus rueppellii||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Bradfield's Hornbill Tockus bradfieldi||resident||1998||-||-||Least Concern|
|Chatshrike Lanioturdus torquatus||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Stark's Lark Eremalauda starki||resident||1998||-||-||Least Concern|
|Rockrunner Achaetops pycnopygius||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Black-lored Babbler Turdoides melanops||resident||1998||-||-||Least Concern|
|Angola Babbler Turdoides hartlaubii||resident||1998||-||-||Least Concern|
|Bare-cheeked Babbler Turdoides gymnogenys||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Burchell's Glossy-starling Lamprotornis australis||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Meves's Glossy-starling Lamprotornis mevesii||resident||1998||-||-||Least Concern|
|Kalahari Scrub-robin Erythropygia paena||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A3||Least Concern|
|Herero Chat Namibornis herero||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A1||Least Concern|
|White-breasted Sunbird Nectarinia talatala||resident||1998||-||-||Least Concern|
|Cinderella Waxbill Estrilda thomensis||resident||1998||present [units unknown]||-||A1, A2, A3||Near Threatened|
|IUCN habitat||Habitat detail||Extent (% of site)|
|Land-use||Extent (% of site)|
Other biodiversity Five species of fish are endemic to the river, of which a newly discovered (1997) species may become extinct if the proposed dam development goes ahead, since it breeds in shallow water on flooded banks. A snake new to science, Coluber zebrinus, was recently discovered here. Elephants Loxodonta africana (EN) use the river as an oasis.
References Barnard (1997), Bethune (1995), Braine (1990), Broadly and Schatti (1997), Herremans and Simmons (1997), Holtzhausen (1991), Jarvis and Robertson (1997), Noli-Peard and Williams (1991), Simmons and Allan (in press), Simmons et al. (1993), Underhill and Brown (1997).
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Recommended citation BirdLife International (2013) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Epupa - Ruacana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2013
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