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Location Malawi, Southern
Central coordinates 35o 38.70' East  15o 55.32' South
IBA criteria A1, A2, A3
Area 60,000 ha
Altitude 600 - 3,002m
Year of IBA assessment 2001

Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi (WESM) (Affiliate)

Site description Mount Mulanje is the highest massif in the country, located in the extreme south-east near the Mozambique border. From the surrounding plains at 600–700 m it rises abruptly to a square block of high plateaux at 1,800–1,900 m, surmounted by bare rock peaks up to 3,002 m. The area above 1,800 m is just under 20,000 ha. On the west, north and eastern sides the foothills have a belt of Brachystegia or transition woodland; the rain-facing southern and south-eastern slopes used to support extensive forest, but the situation has been drastically modified by human encroachment. The high plateaux have mainly montane grassland and shrubland, with small patches of Widdringtonia cedar forest (above c.2,250 m these turn into shrubland). The Widdringtonia forest on the western plateau of Chambe was replaced in the 1950s with exotic pine plantations. Four main forest-types may be recognized: lowland rainforest from 600 to 950 m (Newtonia-Khaya-Albizia dominated), mid-altitude rainforest at 950–1,500 m (with flat-topped Newtonia buchananii clearly dominant, the finest example being in Ruo Gorge on the southern slopes), montane rainforest at 1,500–1,850(– 1,900) m, and mainly Widdringtonia monodominant forest above that. By the early 1980s, total forest cover was still c.7,000 ha (c.200 ha lowland, 1,800 ha mid-altitude, 5,000 ha on upper slopes and plateaus). The site includes the northern extension of Mchese Mountain, where the forest is currently in much better condition than on Mulanje itself. Most of the land around the mountain reserve was cleared for tea cultivation at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Key Biodiversity See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. Some 180 species have been recorded. The site used to be and probably is still the stronghold for 0>Alethe choloensis which is common between 900 and 1,900 m (700 m in winter). The population was estimated at c.1,000 pairs in 1983, although it is likely to have decreased much since. Zoothera guttata was discovered in 1983 and occurs between (700–)1,200 and 1,700 m; Apalis chariessa also occurs, up to 1,350 m, but in low numbers in these rather wet types of mid-altitude and lowland forest. The race flavigularis of Apalis thoracica (endemic to this site and the Zomba area) is common in forest and shrubland from 1,000 to 2,400 m, with altitudinal movements down to 600–700 m in the winter months. Hirundo atrocaerulea breeds in small numbers on the high plateaux. The montane species Pogoniulus leucomystax, Andropadus nigriceps and Bradypterus cinnamomeus reach their southern limits of distribution on Mulanje. The race of Cossypha anomala (nominate) found here is very isolated and confined to this site and adjacent Namuli and Chiperone mountains in Mozambique. In addition, four species of the Zambezian biome occur (see Table 3).

Non-bird biodiversity: Vegetation: Mulanje is the most important centre of plant endemism in Malawi, although some species thought to be endemic may well be found on the lesser-known Namuli Mountain (MZ009) in adjacent Mozambique. A taxonomic review of Widdringtonia cedars has recently shown that two distinct species are present on the mountain: the tall tree ( whytei) is endemic while the shrubby ‘variant’ (W. nodiflora, syn. W. cupressoides) is widespread elsewhere in southern Africa. Another two forest trees are apparently endemic: Rawsonia burtt-davyi and Ficus modesta. The fern flora is exceptionally diverse (with over 100 species recorded in the forests) and contains two probably new species (in the genera Asplenium and Elaphoglossum). More flowering material is needed before a new species of mistletoe (Loranthaceae) can be named. Three lithophytic Streptocarpus and the cycad Encephalartos gratus are also endemic as well as several other plants of non-forest vegetation (although the total number varies according to taxonomic treatment). Reptiles and amphibians: a chameleon Chamaeleo mlanjensis, two geckos Lygodactylus rex and L. bonsi and two races of frogs are apparently endemic. Mammals: Mulanje is the only known Malawi locality for the rodent Aethomys namaquensis. Butterflies: Mulanje has the second-most important forest fauna in Malawi, some 111 species. The following are, on present evidence, endemic to Mulanje: Charaxes margaretae, Cymothoe melanjae and Baliochila nyasae. No fewer than 19 species of butterfly reach their southern limits: Papilio desmondi, P. pelodurus, P. phorcas, Charaxes aubyni, C. dilutus, Pseudacraea deludens, Neptis incongrua, Sallya morantii, Acraea baxteri, A. goetzei, Belenois rubrosignata, Mylothris similis, Neocoenyra gregorii, Eagris sabadius Alaena picata, Teriomima puella, Uranothauma crawshayi, U. falkensteini and Platylesches rasta.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Striped Flufftail Sarothrura affinis resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Scarce Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Pale Batis Batis soror resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive Bush-shrike Telophorus olivaceus resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
White-tailed Crested-flycatcher Elminia albonotata resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Blue Swallow Hirundo atrocaerulea breeding  1999  present  A1, A3  Vulnerable 
White-winged Apalis Apalis chariessa resident  1999  present  A1, A2, A3  Vulnerable 
Andropadus nigriceps resident  1999  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Stripe-cheeked Greenbul Andropadus milanjensis resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Bracken Warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Yellow-throated Woodland-warbler Phylloscopus ruficapilla resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Thyolo Alethe Alethe choloensis resident  1999  present  A1, A2, A3  Endangered 
Orange Ground-thrush Zoothera gurneyi resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Spotted Ground-thrush Zoothera guttata resident  1999  present  A1  Endangered 
White-starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Olive-flanked Robin-chat Cossypha anomala resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Nectarinia mediocris resident  1999  present  A3  Not Recognised 
Bertrand's Weaver Ploceus bertrandi resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Swee Waxbill Estrilda melanotis resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 
Grey-faced Citril Serinus hypostictus resident  1999  present  A3  Least Concern 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Mulanje Forest Reserve 55,209 protected area contains site 55,200  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial - terrestrial   5%
Shrubland   19%
Grassland   1%
Forest   73%

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
forestry -
water management -

Further web sources of information 

Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This site has been identified as an AZE due to it containing a Critically Endangered or Endangered species with a limited range.

References Benson and Benson (1977), Chapman and White (1970), Dowsett-Lemaire (1988, 1989a, b), Dowsett-Lemaire and Dowsett (1988), Dowsett-Lemaire and White (1990), Pauw and Linder (1997), van Strien (1989).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2016) Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheet: Mount Mulanje Forest Reserve. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016

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