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Location Kenya, Rift Valley Province
Central coordinates 35o 18.42' East  1o 21.42' South
IBA criteria A1, A2
Area 530,000 ha
Altitude 1,500 - 2,170m
Year of IBA assessment 2001


Site description This area includes the Masai Mara National Reserve (181,200 ha) and the surrounding wildlife dispersal areas (482,800 ha) in south-western Kenya. Collectively, the reserve and its surrounds are often called the Greater Mara; here, Masai Mara refers to the entire IBA. The site adjoins the Serengeti National Park along the Kenya/Tanzania border, and is considered part of the same ecosystem. The National Reserve is Kenya’s most-visited protected area, world famous for its high density of herbivores and predators, and the annual migrations of wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus. In 1996, it was nominated for designation as a World Heritage Site. To the north, east and west are large parcels of land demarcated as group ranches owned and inhabited by the semi-nomadic pastoral Maasai people. This communal land forms an extensive wildlife dispersal area for the reserve, comprising the group ranches of Siana (152,000 ha), Koiyaki (94,000 ha), Olkinyei (80,000 ha), Lemek (66,000 ha), Kimindet (37,000 ha), Olorien (26,000 ha), Olchorro Ouirwa (11,800 ha), Kerinkani (8,100 ha) and Angata Baragoi (7,900 ha). Habitats in the Masai Mara are varied, including open rolling grassland, riverine forest, Acacia woodland, swamps, non-deciduous thickets, boulder-strewn escarpments, and Acacia, Croton andTarchonanthus scrub. The permanent Mara and Talek rivers, and their tributaries, flow through the reserve and approximately trisect it. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient from the drier east (with c.800 mm rain/year) to the wetter west (with c.1,200 mm/year).

Key Biodiversity See Box and Table 2 for key species. The Mara’s extensive grasslands are a stronghold for the threatened, migratory Crex crex and the near threatened, restricted-range Euplectes jacksoni. The woodlands around the reserve are probably the centre of abundance for the threatened, restricted-range Prionops poliolophus. The restricted-range Histurgops ruficauda has recently been sighted within the reserve, near the southern border, and may be expanding its range northwards. More than 500 other bird species are known to occur, including 12 species of Cisticola and 53 birds of prey. Grassland birds are especially well represented. Large numbers of Palearctic migrants winter in the area, including Charadrius asiaticus and Ciconia ciconia. The Oloololo or Siria Escarpment is one of the few Kenyan sites for Cisticola aberrans. Other local and unusual birds in the Masai Mara include Ardeola rufiventris, Neotis denhami, Centropus grillii, Cercomela familiaris, Calamonastes undosus, Cisticola angusticauda, Hippolais icterinia (in the northern winter), Hyliota flavigaster, Eremomela scotopus and Corvinella melanoleucus. There is a single record of Balaeniceps rex, from the Musiara swamp. Regionally threatened species include Anhinga rufa (occasional visitor), Casmerodius albus, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis (several pairs nest), Trigonoceps occipitalis (regularly nests), Circaetus cinerascens (small numbers), Hieraaetus ayresii (occasional visitor), Polemaetus bellicosus (resident), Stephanoaetus coronatus, Coturnix adansonii (rare intra-African migrant), Porzana pusilla (occasional visitor), Podica senegalensis (resident), Neotis denhami (possibly only 2–3 individuals), Scotopelia peli (resident) and Buphagus africanus (common resident).

Non-bird biodiversity: The Masai Mara is remarkable for its great concentration of large herbivores and their attendant predators. The density of herbivores is estimated as nearly 240/km2, with a biomass of just under 30 tonnes/km2. The extraordinary annual migration of some 1.5 million Connochaetes taurinus (and 200,000 Equus burchelli) is world famous. There are particularly large numbers of Panthera leo (VU) and spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta, and populations of the threatened Diceros bicornis (CR) and Loxodonta africana (EN). Lycaon pictus (EN) now appears to be extinct in the reserve, having succumbed to epidemics of rabies and canine distemper virus (possibly caused by exposure to domestic dogs). A population still survives in the scrublands of Naikarra and Laleta Hills on Siana Group Ranch.

Populations of IBA trigger species

Species Season Period Population estimate Quality of estimate IBA Criteria IUCN Category
Usambiro Barbet Trachyphonus usambiro resident  1999  present  A2  Least Concern 
Madagascar Pond-heron Ardeola idae winter  1999  present  A1  Endangered 
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni passage  1999  present  A1  Least Concern 
Corncrake Crex crex winter  present  A1  Least Concern 
Grey-crested Helmet-shrike Prionops poliolophus resident  1999  present  A1, A2  Near Threatened 
Red-throated Tit Parus fringillinus resident  1999  present  A1  Least Concern 
Rufous-tailed Weaver Histurgops ruficaudus resident  1999  present  A2  Least Concern 
Jackson's Widowbird Euplectes jacksoni resident  1999  present  A1, A2  Near Threatened 

IBA Monitoring

2009 very high unfavourable medium
Good - based on reliable and complete / representative data

Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - nomadic grazing happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) very rapid to severe deterioration very high
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - small-holder grazing, ranching or farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution garbage and solid waste happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Shrubland   0 0 moderate (70-90%) moderate (70-90%) unfavourable

Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation  No management plan exists but the management planning process has begun  Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity  medium 

Protected areas

Protected area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)  
Angata Baragoi Private Reserve 7,900 protected area contained by site 7,900  
Kerinkani Private Reserve 8,100 protected area contained by site 8,100  
Kimindet Private Reserve 37,000 protected area contained by site 37,000  
Koiyaki Private Reserve 94,000 protected area contained by site 94,000  
Lemek Private Reserve 66,000 protected area contained by site 66,000  
Masai Mara National Reserve 151,000 protected area contained by site 151,000  
Olchorro Ouirwa Private Reserve 11,800 protected area contained by site 11,800  
Olkinyei Private Reserve 80,000 protected area contained by site 80,000  
Olorien Private Reserve 26,000 protected area contained by site 26,000  
Siana Private Reserve 152,000 protected area contained by site 152,000  


IUCN habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Lowland forest - riparian; Woodland - monodominant  -
Grassland Grassland - edaphic, dry  -
Savanna Bushland & thicket - evergreen  -
Shrubland Scrub - woodland  -

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -

References Bennun (1994c), Braunstein (1996), Douglas-Hamilton (1988), Finch (1994), Gakahu (1991, 1992), Jones (1982), Kahindi (1994), Kahindi and McIlvaine (1993), Martyn (1995), Opala (1996), Scott (1992), Stattersfield et al. (1998), Tuya (1996), Wasilwa (1997), Wilson (undated).

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Recommended citation  BirdLife International (2014) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Masai Mara. Downloaded from on 27/11/2014

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